Theodore Frelinghuysen – The Dutch Abraham Lincoln

The First Reformed Church at 9 Bayard Street in New Brunswick not only serves as one of the most historic buildings in New Brunswick, but as the final resting place for Theodore Frelinghuysen. The only problemis that the whereabouts of the grave of Mr. Frelinghuysen, seventh President of Rutgers University (then Rutgers College) & former US Senator from NJ, is unknown as it has been lost to the weathering of the cemetery and the neglect from the caretakers. However, the lack of a physical object does not mean that Mr. Frelinghuysen’s body is not buried at the Dutch church’s resting site, nor does it take away from the accomplishments of this man that are owed to the Dutch dynasty he was a central figure of.

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(Not pictured: Theodore Frelinghuysen’s headstone)

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9 Bayard St, New Brunswick, NJ, United States

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9 Bayard St, New Brunswick, NJ, United States 40.495057, -74.442349

Theodore J. Frelinguysen, Theodore’s great-grandfather, served as the minister of the First Reformed Church in New Brunswick and was central to the First Great Awakening, and with that, the spread of Dutch-influenced Christianity. Additionally, as part of the Church leadership position, TJF was very involved in the founding of Queen’s College and  Theodore’s father served in the Revolution, and many of his relatives were influential in local politics and the goings of daily life. In New Brunswick, the Frelinghuysens were the Kennedys. With this inevitability on his shoulders, Theodore attended the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) and practiced law with his brother and Richard Stockton, whose name recognition rings just as true today as it did then.

Frelinghuysen flourished in the political sphere in which he served as US Senator from New Jersey and had many of his votes and political actions influenced by his religion and Dutch roots. He was even the vice-presidential candidate under Henry Clay in the 1844 Presidential Election. Frelinghuysen was an abolitionist when it was unpopular to do so, and his path eerily followed the beginnings of Abraham Lincoln’s: “a lawyer, a politician, a Whig-turned-Republican… had a strong religious commitment and personally found slavery immoral… sought to preserve the Union and hesitated to follow the abolitionist line of denunciation of the South.” (Eells 68). Unfortunately, Theodore didn’t try again for higher office, but he did return to his New Brunswick roots to serve as the seventh President of Rutgers after his stint at New York University.

The shame about Frelinghuysen’s missing grave is that it could have been one of the few monuments to the man and his career. Buildings around Rutgers bear his family’s name, such as the dormitory or the street, but that is not directly Theodore’s honor to be had. In fact, it seems much of what Theodore stood for was something that should have been remembered, or at least recognized to be significant during his time, which is one of the main reasons we wished to recognize his achievements. Accounts of Frelinghuysen’s speeches on the floor of Congress remember him as a passionate, reasoned man who represented his constituents well, so he deserves, if not a grave, a marker of his significance to the nation and our community here in New Brunswick.

Sean Giblin, Laura Friedman, Evan Pié (Section 10)

Works Cited
Eells, Robert. Forgotten Saint: The Life of Theodore Frelinghuysen: A Case Study of Christian Leadership. Lanham, MD: U of America, 1987. Print.
“FRELINGHUYSEN, Theodore – Biographical Information.” FRELINGHUYSEN, Theodore – Biographical Information. N.p., n.d. Web.
“Theodore Frelinghuysen (1787 – 1862) – Find A Grave Memorial.” Theodore Frelinghuysen (1787 – 1862) – Find A Grave Memorial. N.p., n.d. Web.

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Queen’s College Charter

By Nicole Gololobov, Samuel Liu, and Adam Schwing

There are no extant copies of the original Queen’s College charter, but we do have the revised edition. It seems to have been printed on paper, keeping with the technology of its time. It starts with a statement from King George the Third, authorizing the creation of a new college. It also sets down several rules for the new college to adhere to. These rules were intended to keep an English presence at the institution as well as to ensure that the College was at least somewhat secular. It ends with a list of appendices. 

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We chose the charter of Queen’s College because of how relevant it is to our lives and to the 250th anniversary of Rutgers University, which was called Queen’s College from 1766 to 1825.

In the decades leading up to the founding of the college, the Great Awakening had increased the importance of religion and also brought about conflict within the Protestant church. 11 ministers from the Dutch Reformed Church signed a commission for a college in New Jersey so that ministers could be trained locally, rather than have to go all the way to Netherlands. At the time, many other churches in America had their own college, such as the Anglican King’s College in New York. That the Dutch settlers were able to also set up their own educational institution shows the influence that they had, the role of religion in society, and also that they wanted to be independent from their country of origin. Some years after the commission, ministers petitioned for a charter until they were granted one by the governor, William Franklin. There were delays in the building of the college due to opposition from the Classis of Amsterdam, the governing body of the Dutch Reformed Church, the need to raise funds, and revisions made to the original charter to allow for more trustees.

Although the original charter is lost, a revised copy of it was digitized in 2011, so that anyone interested can read it, and a physical copy also exists on campus in one of the offices. It makes sense that an important document be in a central place. It might be interesting to students today that the founding of Rutgers had its roots in religion, rather than something like agriculture, art, or math.

 

Bibliography

Frusciano, Thomas J. “A Historical Sketch of Rutgers University: Section 1.”Rutgers University Libraries. N.p., 9 Nov. 2006. Web. 8 Apr. 2016. <https://www.libraries.rutgers.edu/rul/libs/scua/university_archives/ru_historical_sketch-p1.shtml>.

Robbins, Allen B. “Founding of Queen’s College (1755-1771).” History of Physics and Astronomy at Rutgers. Baltimore: Gateway, 2001. 1-5. Rutgers. 16 Feb. 2009. Web. 8 Apr. 2016. <https://www.physics.rutgers.edu/dept/history/robbins/chapt01.pdf>.

“The Charter of Queen’s (Rutgers) College, in New Jersey, with Appendix.” The Charter of Queen’s (Rutgers) College, in New Jersey, with Appendix. Web. 11 Apr. 2016.

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Alexander Library

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Alexander Library 40.505222, -74.452433

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First Reformed Dutch Church

Authors: Jinhyung An, Julian Esposito, and Jennifer Gololobov

The original church which was in the shape of an octagon and served settlers as a fort against Indian attack.The east wall of the current building incorporates several carved stones from the first church building that was originally constructed on this site. These stones bear the monogram of several of the founding families. The Gothic arch fanlight over the three doors, and the fenestration of the tower: door-window-oculus-window—a pattern that is found in many other Reformed churches in the state.

Cemetery First Reformed Dutch Church, Hackensack, New Jersey

Ken Lund via Flickr CC BY-SA 2.0

Cemetery First Reformed Dutch Church, Hackensack, New Jersey

Ken Lund via Flickr CC BY-SA 2.0

First Reformed Dutch Church is located in Hackensack, New Jersey, where it sits in the churchyard of the church by the same name; however, the current building is not the original building. The current building was constructed in 1791. This church is adjacent to the Hackensack Green, which was originally church land and is one of the oldest public squares in New Jersey. This church was established by Dutch settlers in 1686, but the first building on-site was constructed in 1696. The congregation was made up of 33 congregants. The church shows the influence of the Dutch in religion; the Dutch brought over their Protestant traditions and architectural style. This church also acts as a precursor to the founding of other Dutch Reformed churches in Bergen County and throughout New Jersey. In addition, the building and original congregation represented the establishment of Protestantism as the dominant faith of the region. This church does not have much of recent connection with Rutgers University; however, when the church was first established, Minister John Henry Goetschius and members of the congregation were leaders in the founding of Queen’s College, present day Rutgers University. This church shows the Dutch influence on religion in New Jersey. It set the basic plan for the most of the early Dutch Reformed churches in Bergen County and elsewhere in the state, especially the Gothic arch fanlight over the three doors, and the fenestration of the tower: door-window-oculus-window pattern that is found in many other Dutch Reformed churches in the state. First Reformed Dutch Church has survived to this day and still attended. Many people today see their faith as important to them, in a personal and communal sense. The graves of the church signify its enduring history, both old and modern; some of the graves are very old, placed there around the time of Dutch settlement in the area. Others come from the Victorian era, and there are even some that are relatively new, shaped form granite or marble. Veterans from several wars are buried there, including the Revolutionary War and Civil War.

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First Reformed Dutch Church in Hackensack, NJ

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First Reformed Dutch Church in Hackensack, NJ 40.879483, -74.042535

Bibliography

http://www.njchurchscape.com/Hackensack%20First%20Reformed.html

http://focus.nps.gov/pdfhost/docs/NRHP/Text/83001546.pdf

http://www.thehistorygirl.com/2015/01/hackensack-nj-dutch-reformed-church-cemetery.html

The Wyckoff House

by Chris Lind, Luke Edwards, & Rebecca Kang

Section 10

Wyckoff-House2_credit-Wyckoff-House-Museum_full
Lombardi via openhousenewyork CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

The Wyckoff House was built in 1652, and it is the oldest surviving example of a Dutch saltbox frame house in the New World. It was originally constructed as a single room, one level home. The original flooring was packed Earth, and the windows of the house were unglazed glass. Two doors are positioned on either end of the house, with a large hearth situated in the middle. In the 18th century, a kitchen was attached to the exterior of the house. In total, the restructuring of the house led to six total rooms. The property currently sits on 1.5 acres of land.

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Wyckoff House

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Wyckoff House 40.644350, -73.920777

The Wyckoff House is located in Milton Fidler Park in Brooklyn. Pieter Claesen, who later changed his last name to Wyckoff, is believed to have lived just north of New Amsterdam, and moved south of the city in the 1650s along with many other farmers. During that time, land was being sold to individuals completely independent of large patroonships that were present up north. The Wyckoff family seems to have followed suit with this trend. Pieter Claesen was ultimately responsible for constructing the Wyckoff house. Originally, Pieter was brought to America by Symon Walichsz as an indentured servant on the Rensselaerswyck property. Our artifact tells many stories about the Dutch in America. Primarily, it demonstrates the Dutch view of maintaining family and a family home. The Wyckoff family stayed in the home for eight generations from 1652 until 1901. The Wyckoff House also tells the story of farmers moving south to Dutch owned New Amsterdam. Pieter was one of many farmers to move off the land owned by the Van Rensselaer family and buy land from the Dutch government. The house also tells the story of Dutch architecture. It is a classic Dutch saltbox frame house, complete with the traditional shingled walls and eaves found in Dutch architecture. Ultimately, we picked this artifact because it is a historically significant place in the New World and has deep connections to the Dutch in America. The story of the oldest building in New York City reveals a lot about the Dutch in America, and our group found that connection worth investigating.

Works Cited

“History.” The Wyckoff House. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“Fidler-Wyckoff House Park.” : NYC Parks. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

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William the Silent

 

 Smithsonian American Art Museums via Art Inventories Catalog
Smithsonian American Art Museums via Art Inventories Catalog
 Smithsonian American Art Museums via Art Inventories Catalog
Smithsonian American Art Museums via Art Inventories Catalog

The statue of William the Silent stands on a square base, the statue being green, made of brass, and the base being an off-white, made of stone. William the Statue wears the clothes of a 16th century civilian, and is . The statue has a mustache and beard, with a small dog sitting at the base of his feet. In his hands, William has his right hand pointing upwards with his index finger pointing outwards, while his left hand holds a scroll. William wears traditional 16th century clothes, including a ruffled collar, a long coat and a buttoned vest.

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William the Silent

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William the Silent 40.499858, -74.446793

Essay:

The statue of William the Silent is located at Rutgers University, specifically in front in Voorhees Mall on the College Avenue campus. The monument was donated in 1928, when the Holland Society of New York presented it to the University. This was on behalf of Fenton B. Turck, a physician who acquired it in the Netherlands after World War I.  William the Silent, the Prince of Orange, led a revolution against Spain, which ultimately led to the creation and the formation of the Netherlands. Interestingly, he is called William the Silent for refusing to testify against the Queen. The statue commemorates the Dutch culture, a physical representation of the roots of Rutgers. The Dutch had an open culture as they were accepting of different religions and beliefs, which is a reminder of Rutgers diverse community. William the Silent inspired the founders of Rutgers, who admired the “freedom, tolerance and independence” he stood for (Yacoo). We picked this object because we have seen this object many times, but did not know the history behind it. After learning more about it, we also want to educate our fellow students, as many do not know the history surrounding it. Often, this statue is mistaken for William Shakespeare, which is a shame because of its rich background. Another interesting fact about this artifact is that it is actually a replica of a work by Dutch sculptor Lodewyk Royer. A mold from the original statue was preserved in Brussels during World War I and the government granted permission for one copy to be made, with the mold also being destroyed after. This replica was then purchased by Fenton B. Turck, who graciously gifted it to the University.

Bibliography:

Berkman, Lisa. “Faculty Members Signify Spirit of William the Silent.” The Daily Targum. N.p., 24 Feb. 2012. Web. 6 Apr. 2016. <http://www.dailytargum.com/article/2012/02/faculty-members-signify-spirit-of-william-the-silent?TNNoMobile>

Yacoo, Ryan. “William the Silent Stands Tall over U.” The Daily Targum. N.p., 13 Oct. 2005. Web. 6 Apr. 2016. <http://www.dailytargum.com/article/2005/10/william-the-silent-stands-tall-over-u->.

By:

Michelle Hayek, Biological Sciences and Political Science 2019

Namita Abraham, ITI 2019

Malvika Khanna, Finance 2019

 

The Queens College Charter Window at Kirkpatrick Chapel

Megha Karnam and Victor Kim

Kirkpatrick_Chapel_1766_Rutgers_Charter_Window_New_Brunswick_NJ

ColonelHenry via Wikimedia Commons CC BY-SA 3.0

Physical Description of Artifact:

The Queens College Charter Window is an opalescent stained glass window located in the Kirkpatrick Hotel directly above the entrance of the Chapel. It depicts the signing of the charter that created Queen’s College in 1766 by Governor William Franklin. At the bottom of the window is a dedication of the window to Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen and his sons for their support and advocacy for the establishment of the college.

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Kirkpatrick Chapel

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Kirkpatrick Chapel 40.498861, -74.445830

 

The Queen’s College Charter Window is located in the Kirkpatrick Chapel in New Brunswick above the chapel’s narthex (the entrance of the church) and a choir loft. This location was probably chosen because the Kirkpatrick Chapel is the chapel to Rutgers University and the “Charter Window” commemorates ministers who were instrumental in the founding of Queen’s College, which is now Rutgers. Thus a Rutgers’ chapel is an appropriate location considering the history associated with this object. The window was donated in 1941 (175 years after the signing of the charter establishing Queen’s College). It was donated by the Frelinghuysen family and dedicated to Reverend Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen and his sons. Frelinghuysen was a Dutch-Reformed minister who proposed the idea to establish a college in New Jersey. His sons, Reverend Theodorus Frelinghuysen II and Reverend John Frelinghuysen, continued their father’s efforts, which led to the signing of the charter of Queen’s College in 1766.

We picked the Queen’s College Charter Window because it depicts the moment that was the start of our university. The signing of the charter was a result of growing tensions between the Dutch Reformed churches about whether an assembly should be formed to educate and ordain ministers for the pulpit. Professor Richard P. McCormick in his book, Rutgers, A Bicentennial History, states that the Queen’s College was “a child of controversy.” Its establishment was in the midst of the Great Awakening, which was a period of religious upheaval in the British colonies. Religious motives were dominant in the finding of this college, which is why the history behind the Charter Window is interesting. It shows how much the college has transformed from the day the charter has been signed to now. It speaks to people today because it shows how Rutgers University started from being a small college, deeply rooted in religion, to a large university comprised of a diverse group of people.

 

Bibliography

Di Ionno, M. (2012, August 08). Di Ionno: At historic Rutgers chapel, stained glass is still shining. Retrieved April 06, 2016, from http://blog.nj.com/njv_mark_diionno/2012/08/di_ionno_at_historic_rutgers_c.html
Frusciano, T. J. (n.d.). A Historical Sketch of Rutgers University: Section 1. Retrieved April 06, 2016, from https://www.libraries.rutgers.edu/rul/libs/scua/university_archives/ru_historical_sketch-p1.shtml