Hugo Grotius and UNCLOS III

1609 Freedom of the Seas and Modern Implications

Jeanne Ryder

United Nations Headquarters

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United Nations Headquarters 40.747538, -73.970778

HugoGrotius-MareLiberum-1609   Mierevelt_grotius_1608

NYC_United Nations Headquarters

What is it?

Mare Liberum written by Hugo Grotius inspired the most successful international organization of our age – the United Nations. At 540 United Nations Plaza in New York, New York, discussions and compromises about international relations can be heard on the daily. This building – so close to home – serves as the headquarters for the entire United Nations, a location that bears great pride for the entire tri-state area. Much of the thanks for this tremendous honor should go to the Dutch jurist, Hugo Grotius. He is generally known as the father of international law, thanks to the legal and philosophical ideas he shared in the several books he published. This post looks closely at his book Mare Liberum and the affects that it had on the development of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS). This book, published in 1609, birthed the concept of “freedom of the seas” that now dictates international law regarding water passages.

Why is this important?

The Dutch have influenced American legal proceedings in a plethora of ways – from the original Democratic roots of the Mayflower Compact to the corporate laws surrounding modern day capitalism. The Dutch were generally more progressive than their surrounding countries – especially during the Dutch Golden Age that characterized the 17th century. It was during this Dutch cultural peak that Hugo Grotius first elaborated on his ideas of open sea territories. As he claims, “Every nation is free to travel to every other nation, and to trade with it” (Grotius 7). Grotius later served as a counsel for the Dutch East India Company in their legal trouble with Portugal following the seizure of the Santa Catarina ship, putting his ideas to the test. Clearly they survived the case, and even outlived time as his principles are executed everyday on the open seas. His revolutionary ideas about border endings transcended basic trading laws to serve as a guide for the multi-governmental organization we know as the United Nations today. Grotius did not believe in the claiming of water for two of the following reasons: “First, it is not susceptible of occupation; and second its common use is destined for all men. For the same reasons the sea is common to all, because it is so limitless that it cannot become a possession of any one, and because it is adapted for the use of all, whether we consider it from the point of view of navigation or of fisheries” (Grotius 28). In the 1920s, national claims in waters was brought to the table of the League of Nations (first attempt of international law) as nations (including the Netherlands) wished to extend borders to include mineral resources, protect fish stocks and control pollution. Several nations met at the Hague in Holland to discuss the matter – where Dutch jurist Cornelius van Bynkershoek’s “cannon shot rule” was used to make borders extend 3 nautical miles into the water. The Dutch are inseparable from both American politics and the universal politics we see today. It is no coincidence that 2 of the 6 hosting cities of the UN are Dutch and American. Actually, the Hague was considered for the headquarters of the UN but John D. Rockefeller Jr.’s 8.5 million dollar donation to purchase the land in Manhattan swayed the architects. Instead the International Court of Justice and the International Criminal Court remain in the Hague today, since the Netherlands philosophical and legal developments were crucial in the foundation of international relations. Today, Dutch and American government officials are crucial for the carrying out of compromises between nations in the UN, thanks to the originally Dutch principles that have been carried over into the American political system. Open seas are especially important today considering problems like the GPGP (Great Pacific Garbage Patch) and the lack of responsibility for oceanic pollution. UNCLOS is working hard to find a solution, but would never have been able to do so without Hugo Grotius’s Mare Liberum. 

Works Consulted

David Armitage, “Introduction”. In: Hugo Grotius (2004) The Free Sea, Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, pp. xxii–xxiii.

Grotius, The Freedom of the Seas.

“Lake Success: A Reluctant Host to the United Nations”Newsday (New York). Archived from the original on May 23, 2006

Tullio Scovazzi lecture entitled The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and Beyond in the Lecture Series of the United Nations Audiovisual Library of International Law Accessed April 11, 2016.

Dutch Roots: The Controversial History of the Orange Carrot

By Miranda Safir

The history of the orange carrot is surprisingly controversial. One expert, Koert van Mensvoort, argues that in the 1500s Dutch farmers from Hoorn in the northern Netherlands utilized selective breeding to grow orange carrots (RNW). Prior to this time carrots came in an expansive list of hues ranging from purple, yellow, and red. The wild carrot, which grew all over Europe and the Middle East, was first domesticated in Afghanistan thousands of years before the development of the orange carrot (Stolarczyk and Janick 13). Some people believe the orange carrot was developed by the Dutch as a symbol of patriotism, due to the newly established House of Orange by William of Orange. However, there is no evidence to back this theory up although it is widely believed to be true (RNW).

The World Carrot Museum describes a much more complex and contradictory origin story of the orange carrot, which points to the first record of their existence, which can be found in Byzantine manuscripts from 512 AD (Stolarczyk). It is clear, however, that the Dutch certainly mastered the domestication of the orange carrot. In a document by the U.S. Department of Agriculture from 1940 on varieties of carrots, the Dutch are credited with developing the orange carrot and selling the seeds to the British who then brought them to early America. The publication states that by 1610 carrots and seeds were being sold in markets all over Amsterdam (United States 14). In the New Netherlands carrots became a staple in the garden and recipes (Barnes and Rose 58). Other publications credit English pilgrims entirely for the popularity of the orange carrot in the New World and for the quick adoption of the crop by Native Americans.

However, one should not forget where the orange carrot was born: the Netherlands. The Dutch should really get the credit for its creation (Stolarczyk and Janickn 17). Back in the Netherlands orange carrots became so common that they were incorporated into the Golden Age paintings of daily life for which the Dutch are so renowned. This can be seen in Gerrit Dou’s painting The Grocer’s Shop in which orange carrots are prominently featured on the window ledge that allows us to look into the shop (Figure 1). Dou is a famous Dutch painter who started to work for Rembrandt at the tender age of fifteen. He himself became well known for his detailed genre paintings. Dou is credited with founding the Leiden School of fijnschilders, which means “fine painters” in Dutch (NGA). His painting incorporating orange carrots was painted in 1647. It is oil painted on wood panel (Dou). Dou’s work can be seen around the world today and his paintings sell for extremely high prices. Although his paintings captivate internationally, Dou never left the Netherlands (Rijksmuseum). It is amazing that the carrots we eat today are the same as those depicted in paintings by numerous Dutch masters. Even more spectacular is the fact that there is so much controversy around the origin of the orange carrot, which few Americans have realized.


Gerrit Dou. The Grocer’s Shop. 1647. Oil on wood panel. Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Figure 1 Gerrit Dou.The Grocer’s Shop. 1647. Oil on wood panel. Musée du Louvre, Paris.

Works Cited

Barnes, Donna R., and Peter G. Rose. Matters of Taste: Food and Drink in Seventeenth-century Dutch Art and Life. Albany, NY: Syracuse UP, 2002. Print.

Dou, Gerrit. The Grocer’s Shop. 1647. Musée Du Louvre, Paris. Carrot Museum. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. <>.

National Gallery of Art. “Gerrit Dou: Master Painter in the Age of Rembrandt.” National Gallery of Art Washington D.C., 2016. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. <>.

Rijksmuseum. “Gerard Dou.” Rijksmuseum, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. <>.

RNW Media. “The Royal History of The… Carrot??” RNW Media, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. <>.

Stolarczyk, John. “The Orange Color Carrot.” Carrots – The Road to Domestication. Carrot Museum, n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. <>.

Stolarczyk, John, and Jules Janick. “Carrot: History and Iconography.” Chronica Horticulturae A Publication of the International Society for Horticultural Science 51.2 (2011): 13-18. 2011. Web. 10 Apr. 2016. <>.

United States. Department of Agriculture. Descriptions of Types of Principal American Varieties of Orange-fleshed Carrots. By Roy Magruder. Vol. 361. Washington, D.C.: United States Department of Agriculture, 1940. Print.

Hoorn, Netherlands

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Hoorn, Netherlands 52.642365, 5.060212

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Blue Delft ~ an artistic, classy knockoff.

A brief history by Bailey Lawrence and Tyler Farnsworth.


Imitation Delftware: With a diameter of approximately 1 foot, the above plate is colored in the iconic blue-and-white for which “Blue Delft” pottery received its namesake. A romanticized outdoor scene, presumably of a couple and their newborn baby, plays out within an ornate border. Dressed in traditional early nineteenth-century clothing, the characters engage in everyday domestic activities and affirm well-entrenched gender roles. It is unclear where the scene takes place, although it can be assumed that the plate’s British manufacturers meant to emulate a location in England. The skyline of a rustic town can be faintly made out in the background.

After learning about the Dutch’s profound influence on America’s origins and culture, it is astonishing how conspicuous its evidence remains in everyday life. Since returning from the Netherlands, I was capable of admiring the significance and historical texture of the collection of engraved copper pottery that had sat on display in my kitchen for more than a decade. Our brief stint in Delft inspired us to analyze the legacy of the pottery to which the Dutch town lends its name. The plate is a member of a large collection of ornamental kitchenware gifted to my mother by her sister about 12 years ago. This exchange by two Latinas was made with no addition of cultural significance relating to Delftware’s Dutch origins. This particular example of imitation “Delftware” was made in England, where its manufacturers claimed to be harkening back to a collection crafted in 1816. My mother was delighted upon learning about what she perceived to be the authenticity of the object, excitedly remarking “Oh wow, she got me the real thing!”

Ironically enough for Bailey’s mother, her delftware would not truly be “the real thing” unless it was about 200 years older, and from the Netherlands, not England. Oxidized tin ceramics, like that of Delftware, had been used in the middle east as early as the 8th century, and found its way to the Spaniards, English, Dutch, Germans, North Africans and Egyptians over the next 900 years. What is unique about Delftware among other oxidized tin ceramics is its white and blue coloring, and its use of a portrait or landscape, rather than a typical geometric pattern.

What’s even funnier yet is that the original Delftware itself is said to have been created as a knockoff porcelain product from China. Porcelain products from China were sought after, but very fragile and costly to ship. Thus came about the trade of delftware, just as pretty but made domestically. So maybe Bailey’s mother’s delftware dish is an imitation piece twice over. All jokes aside, the delftware is a manifestation of the Golden age Dutch practicality and capitalist ways, while also showcasing their refinement and appreciation for beauty and art.


Oxidized tin ceramics came from 8th century Mesopotamians, which was used by 18th century Dutch to imitate Chinese porcelain. This Chinese imitation that took a style of its own was then imitated by the 19th century English, and now one of the English imitation pieces can be found in Bailey’s home, and likely many other American homes as well. The above map shows the route of the history of Bailey’s mother’s piece.


For Further Reading:


  • Avery, C. L. (1930, September). English Delftware. The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin, 25(9), 190-192.
  • Hildyard, R. (1990, May). A Group of Southwark Delftwares. The Burlington Magazine, 132(1046), 354-355.
  • Paul Clemens (2016, May) Video Recording of Lecture on Dutch Golden Age Rutgers University Archives
  • Wuestman, G. (2009). Wouwerman on Delftware. The Rijksmuseum Bulletin,57(3), 236-243.

Below link had no author, or publication date, but contains thorough bibliography of resources to examine 

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America’s First Rope-Skippers

From The Girls Own Book by Lydia Marie Child
From The Girls Own Book by Lydia Marie Child. Print

As Follows:

Two ropes are to be used, a child should hold either end in each hand, while turning them alternatively; the skipper must jump over each in every turn.

You fill find that children often compete to show superiority of skill. Whoever skips the most rope without interruption, is crowned victor.

Many, upon reading and imagining the movements of the steps in their head, will recognize this activity more commonly as “Double-Dutch”.

Its late 16th century, America receives its first organized wave of European immigrants, and the children are homesick. Longing for their country and the friends that the have left behind, the little Dutch children, in an effort to make the best of a foreign and somewhat empty neighborhood, did what they knew best during moments of boredom. Skip Rope. Centuries later, the stomping and the clapping of those children can still be heard in New Netherlands today. In the streets of what is now known as Manhattan, those young children sowed the beginnings of what will eventually become a staple in every playground in America; regardless of background, age, or income identities, children all across America will have participated in what will eventually be adopted as the game, “Double Dutch”.

But why exactly is it called, “Double Dutch”?

Surely the phrase must be the brainchild of a few middle school children wanting to ascribe rhyme and alliteration to a whimsical activity they’ve learned to enjoy very much during a typical day. But No,

A better approach to its origins would be to focus on the pieces and its parts-and acknowledge the potential of cultural undertones that may in fact be subtle reference to those immigrant children of long ago.

The modern use of the phrase “Double Dutch” in meaning to describe an odd and strange demonstration of athleticism and skill happens to fall on a connection to a very early and derogatory use of the term. ‘Double-Dutch’ was a commonly known phrase used by native Englanders as early as the 17 century. Double Dutch translates into “gibberish” or “strange talking”1. Commonly used to reference English Superiority. It found its way into common speech because of its xenophobic and prejudice overtones.

A popular understanding behind the christening of the sport comes from an exchange between and English officer and his subordinate in the early days of new Netherlands. On the streets of New Netherlands, near the Hudson to be exact, the children of Dutch immigrant would chant and rhyme in sequence while rhythmically jumping inside two ropes. Settlers could not understand neither the songs (which were in Dutch) nor the purpose of using two ropes instead of the conceivable one. It was pure lunacy2.

Snapshot of Wikipedia Webpage of Touwtjespringen
Snapshot of Wikipedia Webpage of Touwtjespringen

Under Met Meerdere personen, You’ll find lyrics to a popular children’s rhyme

In spin–/ De Bocht Gaat in,–/ Ult sput–/ De boct gaat uit

In, spider, in goes the turn/curve–/; out,–/ Out goes the turn/curve

Finding no way to explain the curious behavior, the English described the act as being “Double Dutch.” Thereby cementing the phrase in unfavorable origins and bringing the sports origins into an unspoken corner in history. As a result, Double-Dutch got its named out of unflattering definitions, but has since lost that connection to the past.

As for the children of the Netherlands, the rhymes and the rope-skipping served to reinforce their Dutch identity in a new and unfamiliar world. In this classic immigrant story, Double-Dutch grew against enmity and prejudice and into the embrace and activity of every American son and Daughter of the 20th Century.

[Edin, Janin, Jim] Via Flickr [CC BY-NC-ND 2.00
[Edin, Janin, Jim] Via Flickr [CC BY-NC-ND 2.00

Both physically engaging and easy to learn, Double-Dutch has implemented itself into American history as a staple of urban culture. Athletes and middle-schoolers alike can thank the Dutch for bringing the act of rope-skipping to the states. The sport sure has grown out of its “gibberish” label and has become more of a metaphor for unity and acceptance.

Take a moment to visit any middle or elementary school, any park or YMCA, and any clubhouse or front yard, and you will find children rhyming and skipping all across the United States. In every Neighborhood and on every summer day children of all ages would have at some point in life met with a faithful encounter with Double-Dutch.

With over hundreds of competitive and recreational Double-Dutch clubs and teams clubs and teams, it’s safe to say that We’ve openly adopted this strange and foreign activity.

So much so that grew alongside some prohibitive undertones. Openly accepted to all, but somewhat limited by a standard/conventional image of it being a child’s sport or plaything. Is there nothing to learn about the collaborative nature of the game?

Consider this scene from a popular children’s film

For one thing, this is but a taste of the energy and vibrancy one will find in many east coast double-dutch competitions. But what of the movie itself?

Many of you may remember this well-known Disney channel movie starring the then immensely popular Corbin Bleu. Our protagonist is caught in an internal struggle between feeling of duty towards his family and legacy against the thrill and allure of skipping rope. It’s a story about tolerance, love, and transforming your horizons.

Finding no way to tell both his father or his neighborhood, he practices and plays Double-Dutch in secrecy, until he finds himself in the finals of a well-advertised and competitive Double Dutch Tournament. Coincidently, his team faces none other than

The Dutch Dragons~

This is a story of someone finding their place in a society so well pronounced by its norms and prescriptions. A story many of us are likely to relate to. But this is also a story so much more than that.

It’s a film that asks us to find the value in willingly accepting another person’s culture. The reward and growth one achieves through a commitment to participating and engagement. In a community full of diversity and multiculturalism, is it ever a good idea to avert and push away. What about our community. Our Rutgers Community? Aren’t we pretty much a Double Dutch Community ourselves. One does not simply skip over two ropes alone. In order to move and push yourselves to the point of growth and milestones, we need our team players.

What Double Dutch promotes is Tolerance and Acceptance.

And is this not the cornerstone of our Rutgers Community !

Truly, this is greatest lesson we must have learned through our “low-land” counterparts.

Double Dutch

From the mockery of the game, to its overwhelming acceptance, Double Dutch is but one example of a history of shared and interwoven American and Netherlandian companionship.

And that is the heart of it.

So next time you see someone playing double-dutch- Jump In

That is the true purpose of the game!


Alexander Lopez-Perez is a Sophomore at Rutgers University. Inspired by reading stories to children and their pets, he is currently studying English and Education in the School of Arts and Sciences . A fan of Frozen Bananas.

Works Cited Continue reading “America’s First Rope-Skippers”

Adriaen van der Donck

By Chase Goodwin


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Yonkers 40.931210, -73.898747
Adriaen van der Donck

The Remonstrance was written by Adriaen van der Donck in 1649 and was published in the Hague, the Netherlands in 1650. The 49 page literature consists of 3 main parts: a description of the natives of New Netherlands and the physical features of the country; a narrative of the events first connected with the administration of public affairs from the founding up until 1651; and a remonstrance against the policy and acts of the Dutch West India Company, including the horrific behavior of governor Kieft. It’s significant in the sense that it is one of the earliest descriptions of America, including descriptions of the natives, flora, fauna and the geography. His goal was to convince the Dutch government and the Dutch merchants of the value this New World Dutch property offered. Since the colony was passed over from the Dutch government to the British in 1664 without much thought, it appears as if Van der Donck wasn’t successful in his first objective. However, he was very successful in convincing Dutch merchants of the new property’s potential; as a result of his publication of The Remonstrance, several ships of Dutch colonists left for the New Netherlands. The excitement reached a point where a Dutch West India Company director was quoted with writing, “Formerly New Netherland was never spoken of, and now heaven and earth seem to be stirred up by it and every one tries to be the first in selecting the best pieces [of land] there.”

Page from The Remonstrance
Negotiating Peace with the Native Americans

To go alongside the Remonstrance, van der Donck commissioned the Jansson-Visscher map of the colony. It showed the original Dutch territorial claim of New Netherlands ranging from just south of the Delaware Bay to New England and included drawings of wild game, typical Indian villages and the town of New Amsterdam. The map itself remained the definitive map of the area for over a century, a chief reason as to why so many Dutch names of places still exist today.

Jansson-Visscher commissioned map

Adriaen was a descendent of Van Bergen, who is famous for orchestrating the successful, Trojan-horse-style infiltration of the city of Breda, liberating the city from the Spanish Hapsburg rule. He lived from 1620 until 1655 and is regarded as one of the first true Americans, a man with more loyalty for this new country than his old. After obtaining a law degree from University of Leyden, he came to New Amsterdam to work as a schoute (loosely translated as sheriff) for Rensselaer, a wealthy businessman and landowner of Rensselaerswyck region further north along the Hudson River. Even though his law degree from one of the most prestigious schools in the world gave him so many career options, his adventurous spirit led him to work in the New World.

Eventually van der Donck’s relationship deteriorated with Rensselaer and he found himself moving lower down the Hudson River to work in the Manhattans. He played an instrumental role in ending Kieft’s horrific war that was caused by unreasonable taxes on the Native Americans. He sent a treaty to Amsterdam and convinced officials to order an end to Kieft’s war. Van der Donck greatly impacted the resulting treaty with the Native Americans since Kieft called upon his assistance and expertise to help create the document. Van der Donck was one of the most well known and influential advocates for Dutch-style republican government in the Dutch West India Company (DWIC).

As compensation for brokering peace between the Native Americans and the tyrannical Kieft, he was given a large tract of land by the DWIC. He later purchased additional nearby land, bringing his estate to a total of 23,000 acres. What is now Yonkers, NY located in northwest Bronx was once van der Donck’s land. He was addressed by the honorary title “jonkheer” because the Dutch called prospering young men who owned a lot of land that, similar to the British term “squire”. The title was typically shortened to simply “jonker.” Since the area was the Jonker’s possession, the name Yonkers was born slowly over time.

View from Yonkers Present Day

Van der Donck’s death in 1855 is shrouded in mystery. It is not known where he is buried, nor the exact cause of his premature death; however, it is believed that he was murdered by Native Americans. If this is true, how ironic of a death he had considering he devoted a huge part of his life to advocating for interests on the Native Americans’ behalf.

It is apparent Adrean van der Donck and his works are some of many examples of the Dutch influence on colonial America that can still be seen to this day. Van der Donck played a huge role in mitigating the conflict between the Dutch and the Native Americans; published a description of New Netherlands that convinced many Dutch and other Europeans to move there; owned land which eventually became known as one of the most populated cities in NY; and published the definitive map of colonial America, cementing the Dutch names of places to this very day. Most importantly, he advocated for democratic governance by getting Kieft removed from the position of governor, paving the way for this democratic theme to form the foundation of the United States of America.



Donck, Adriaen van der

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On Dutch Literature and its Presence in America

by Marina Shimarova and Soo Jeong Hwang

Section 12

The week we were in the Netherlands was Boekenweek, a week dedicated to Dutch writing. The National Book Week is put together by the Foundation Collective Propaganda for Dutch Book. Each year, CPNB foundation hosts two writers to compose an essay and a gift.

SH: I was interested in this topic because I grew up with a Dutch character named Nijntje, or Miffy. I got interested in how much the Dutch literature was present in my life and wanted to look more into the topic.

MS: Literature is something that can reach across cultures in unexpected ways. As someone who grew up between two different cultures, I didn’t find many ways that the literature of the country where I was born overlapped with the literature of the United States. I was curious to find out if there was more in common between Dutch and American folklore due to their shared history.

Rip van Winkle” was written by American author Washington Irving, Scottish-English by heritage. The tale is set in a Dutch town in Catskills, New York, where the author had not visited before he wrote the story. The story was published in Irving’s The Sketchbook 1819 – 20 and is set in the time period before and after the American Revolution. It concerns the story of a man who goes up the Catskill Mountains and meets with people who are playing ninepins who offer him a drink. van Winkle falls asleep and wakes up twenty years later. He goes back to his town and finds that his wife has passed away, his children have grown up and, that the American Revolution has taken place. The people in the town are amused by the story he tells. The Sketchbook was published in New York by C. S. van Winkle.

Catskill, NY

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Catskill, NY 42.217310, -73.864573


Irving’s tale features a Dutch main character, which shows the influence of the Dutch on American history. Furthermore, the plot of “Rip van Winkle” is similar to that of a classic European fairy tale. Its plot is based off of one of Grimm’s fairy tales. Rip van Winkle resonates with us to this day. The storyline can be found in modern popular media. Examples include “The Rip Van Winkle Caper” in The Twilight Zone and “Rip Van Flintstone” in The Flintstones.

The flying Dutchman is a well known character in American folklore. According to the legend, the Dutchman, supposedly named Vanderdecken, was the captain of a ship trying to sail around the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa. In the gale of a forceful storm, the captain refused the pleas of his crew and passengers to turn around to safety. Then, a ghostly figure appeared on board the ship, and condemned the captain to forever haunt the seas with a ghostly ship, as a punishment for his reckless behavior. Contrary to the name, the legend of the flying Dutchman originated in England, not the Netherlands. It was based on a 17th century Dutch sailor named Bernard Fokke, who was known for being able to travel from the Netherlands to Java with incredible speed.

Untitled presentation (1)   

[The Flying Dutchman by Howard Pyle]

The Sandman, named Klaas Vaak in Dutch literature, is the basis for the American comic book series by Neil Gaiman. The character of the Sandman also appears in American films such as Dreamworks’ “Rise of the Guardians” and songs like “Enter Sandman” by the band Metallica.

In the literature of the Netherlands and other Northern and Central European countries, the Sandman is a man who sprinkles dust and sand in the eyes of children to make them go to sleep.

Untitled presentation (2)

[Cover of the Sandman comic books series]

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[Klaas Vaak]

Anne Frank’s diary was published as Het Achterhuis (The Secret Annex) in the Netherlands on June 25th, 1947. The Anne Frank House in Amsterdam became a museum in 1960 and Otto Frank, Anne’s father, was involved with the House and campaigned for human rights and respect until he died. It is read across the world today, including the U.S. as we educate people about World War II and the Holocaust. The resounding effects of honesty and human nature found in Anne’s diary is loved and respected by many people over the world.

Untitled presentation (4)

[The first edition of Anne’s diary]


Pierre M. Irving, The Life and Letters of Washington Irving, G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1883, vol. 2, p. 176

Wright, Charlton, “The Phantom Ship; or, The Flying Dutchman,” Tales of the Horrible; or, The Book of Spirits (London: Charlton Wright, 1837), pp. 49-56.

Minnaard, Liesbeth (2009). New Germans, New Dutch: Literary Interventions. Amsterdam UP. p. 253. ISBN 9789089640284. Retrieved 10 April 2016.

Gaiman, Neil (w). “The Origin of the Comic You Are Now Holding (What It Is and How It Came to Be” Sandman 4 (April 1989)

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Tons of Tulips (from Turkey?!)


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Tulips 40.483521, -74.457354

IMG_7405 IMG_4638 IMG_4634 IMG_4637

By: Paige Tetens, Monika Juzwiak, and Morgan McCabe (Discussion Section 12)

Physical Description

Tulips are flowers that grow from bulbs and bloom in the spring. The flower consists of two types of tepals (the outer parts of the flower – sepals and petals), sometimes varying in color.

Typically brightly colored, the tepals may have different colored blotches at the base. Most common colors found in tulips are red, yellow, pink and white.


The tulip flower has a marked presence on Livingston Campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Planted in early spring by the gardeners of Rutgers University, these flowers are a signal to the residents and passing students of this campus that the end of the academic year is drawing close. These flowers can be seen in large, organized clusters mainly outdoors in cement planters. The organization and uniformity of these arrangements is a testament to the stereotypically Dutch view on cleanliness and order. After the conversion to Protestantism, the Dutch were known to be an extraordinarily tidy people due to what was known as the “protestant work ethic”, where success and godliness were sought through diligent work. When the Dutch colonized the New World, they brought their views on order and the value of hard work with them–an influence which lingered.

Our interest in the tulip stemmed from our visit to the Amsterdam Flower Market where the sheer volume and diversity of tulips left quite an impression on us.

While tulips now grow in many different places around the world, they are primarily a symbol of Dutch culture. They are actually originally from Turkey and Persia! They were introduced to Europe by an Ottoman ambassador towards the end of the 16th century. The Netherlands marks 1594 as the date of the first flowering tulips in the country. Mere decades later, The Netherlands was struck by Tulipmania, where the demand for tulips was so high, you could trade things a complete bed, two tons of butter, or 1,000 pounds of cheese for a single bulb. In a rather interesting anecdote, a sailor was arrested for mistaking a valuable tulip bulb for a raw onion and consuming it. Now, tulips are rather common and The Netherlands produces about 3 billion bulbs a year. Chances are, if you see a tulip outside, it’s Dutch.
Today, one can buy tulip flowers with relative ease. However, since these are rarely bought for oneself, it is important to consider the symbolic significance of the plant’s color. Red, for example, signifies the “fire of love” that is felt by the giver for the recipient, whereas white can be used apologetically.


Upchurch, Michael. “How A Turkish Blossom Enflamed the Dutch Landscape.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 03 Mar. 2001. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

Christenhusz, Maarten J. M., et al. “Tiptoe Through The Tulips – Cultural History, Molecular Phylogenetics And Classification Of Tulipa ( Liliaceae).” Botanical Journal Of The Linnean Society 172.3 (2013): 280-328. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

Curtis, Diana. “Plath’s TULIPS.” Explicator 64.3 (2006): 184-186. Academic Search Premier. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“Mackay, Charles, Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds: Library of Economics and Liberty.” Mackay, Charles, Memoirs of Extraordinary Popular Delusions and the Madness of Crowds: Library of Economics and Liberty. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

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