City Tavern

Dylan Vail

Daniel Hernandez

Section 8


City Tavern was one of the first taverns built in New York, and it became the first City Hall/ State House ever built in Manhattan.  A meeting place for all citizens and meant to accommodate meetings of business and order, it was important to the city and for what the city would eventually become.  It was located on Pearl Street which had been where the city met the river before the expansion of New York, and where fishermen and hunters frequented.

The above image is outside of 85 Broad, in NYC, and the yellow bricks outline the foundation of where City Tavern used to be.

City Tavern

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City Tavern 40.703804, -74.011217


My object was located on the corner of Coenties Slip and Pearl  Street back in the colony of New Amsterdam, and is now the near the street in front of 85 Broad, and Pearl. The governing groups realized they had to be in touch with their citizens and so Director-General William Kieft had a stone tavern built in 1642.  In 1653 it was officially commissioned by Petrus Stuyvesant and named the Stadt Huys (State House), but was known less formally as City Tavern.  It was used as a gathering ground for all people of the city and meetings were often held there.

The first order of business after signing the municipal charter was to declare:

“herewith [to] inform everybody that they shall hold their regular meetings in the house hitherto called the City Tavern, henceforth the City Hall, on Monday mornings from 9 o’clock, to hear there all questions of difference between litigants and decide them the best they can”

The tavern was only about a two-minute walk from the fort, and so the governors often used it as a place to entertain or send their guests when they were hosting.  It was a place for refugees arriving to the city, soldiers stationed there, citizens talking at night, less desirable individuals, as well as the elite who often frequented it.  It was a place where problems were solved and issues raised, where organizers and activists rallied, and where even the Board of Nine was said to have used it for their purposes.  After issues with the British and other historical events, the title of State House was given to the Lovelace Tavern next door in 1697.  But both would eventually be destroyed, with most attributing this to a fire in 1706.  During construction of 85 Broad in Manhattan, the foundations of Lovelace Tavern were found and so the spot of City Tavern was also discovered.  This object was integral to the colony of New Amsterdam and what it would eventually become in the great city of New York.  The artifact tells how the Dutch were organized and prepared and worked to integrate their people, as well as how they met to face problems and make decisions that we see as progressive today.  It still speaks today as its place is outlined in the streets to signify its historical importance in a city that is constantly developing and progressing.  And it was chosen because of the interest brought to it by a source website that was stumbled upon, and after seeing its historical importance and its lesser known status, it had to be given some sort of attention.


Manhattan’s first taverns: Wooden Horse and City Tavern

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The Bull Stone House


By:Brittany Conlon, Irene Nicholas, Dina Thomas, Preety Saran

Section: 8

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Located in Orange County, New York, The Bull Stone House is a ten-room stone house that took thirteen years to complete. William Bull and Sarah Wells built the house in 1722; they were among the first settlers in Orange County. The house is extremely durable, and even endured an earthquake in 1728 during its construction. It is one of the oldest intact houses in all of New York, and it has one of only a few hundred surviving Dutch barns of the New World on its property. The house and its accompanying barn are also on the National Register of Historic Places.

Hamptonburgh, NY

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Hamptonburgh, NY 48.216038, 16.378984

After researching, we found that many buildings in New York as well as New Jersey were built by the Dutch. For example, the Bull Stone House, one of the oldest intact houses in all of New York, was built by Dutch settlers. The house was built by married couple, William Bull and Sarah Wells, in 1722. The Bull Stone House is located in Hamptonburgh, New York and has one of only a few hundred surviving Dutch barns in the New World on its property. The stone house which has ten rooms took thirteen years to complete and endured an earthquake in 1728 during its construction.

The house’s builders, Bull and Wells, had received the land which the Bull Stone House is built on as a wedding gift and worked together to build a home and life with each other. Bull was a stonemason and Wells had prior experience with building as she had previously built her own log cabin at the age of 16.

They both worked towards the construction of the house which reflects the more progressive concepts the Dutch adopted towards gender roles. Both husband and wife had active roles during the Bull Stone House’s construction, rather than the societal norm of having only men do the more physically strenuous work.

The house stands as a symbol of feminism by commemorating then eighteen-year-old Sarah Wells’ trek along the Hudson River, during which she courageously led an entourage of Native American guides and carpenters. She received 100 acres as payment for claiming the land; the Bull Stone House that she built with her husband is a physical manifestation of her achievements.


Works Cited

“Bull Run.” Civil War Trust. Council on Foreign Relations, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“Bull Stone House.” Bull Stone House. The William Bull and Sarah Wells      Stone House Association, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

Sperling, Bert. “Best Places to Live in Hamptonburgh, New York.” Sperling’s Best Places. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

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Henry Hudson Statue in the Bronx

Kevin Reshamwala, Nick Ramirez, Fatimah Ahmed, and Misha Faerovitch

Section 8

henry hudson statuehenry hudson map


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Physical Description:

The bronze statue of Henry Hudson stands at a height of 16 feet. The explorer is perched on top of a Milford pink granite column that is 100 feet while the monument itself is elevated at 200 feet. His stature gives the illusion that he is trying to balance himself on the ship’s deck. There is a cornerstone at the base of the monument that is made out of rock, stone, and metal. It depicts various scenes from the voyage to New York such as meeting with the Natives and making a deal with Dutch settlers.


The Henry Hudson Statue is located on Spuyten Duyvil Hill in the Bronx borough of New York City (specifically Independence Avenue Bronx, NY 10463). In 1906, civic leaders wanted to create a statue as a homage to Hudson in commemoration of the 300th Anniversary of his arrival in New York Harbor. His ship, the Half Moon, was docked off the Spuyten Duyvil in preparation for a voyage to discover the Northwest Passage. Instead, he discovered the Hudson Bay.

Plans for the monument came into fruition in 1909 and construction was completed in 1937. In 1938, the statue was unveiled to the public. Architect Walter Cook created the column while sculptor Karl Bitter designed the statue. Unfortunately, Bitter passed away in 1915, prompting Bitter’s student Karl Heinrick Gruppe to finish the statue on his behalf.

In terms of Dutch history, the memorial represents the first voyage set forth by the Dutch. The captain, Henry Hudson, helped establish the first trading post on the Island of Manhattan. The memorial also commemorates Hudson’s charter with the Dutch East India Company, which was designed to find a path to Northern Asia.

We decided to analyze the statue of Henry Hudson because we believe the impact of his voyage is still felt today. If it wasn’t for Hudson, the Dutch culture and value system would not have spread across the region. New York City would not probably not have become the diverse metropolitan area that it is today without the Dutch beliefs about ethnic and religious tolerance. The statue of Henry Hudson reminds us of the Age of Exploration. It is a monument commemorating a frontiersmen who ventured outside the boundaries of his understanding and into the unknown.

                                                    Works Cited

Da Cruz, Frank. “Henry Hudson Memorial Column – Bronx NY – Living       New Deal.” Living New  Deal. Living New Deal, 02 Aug. 2015. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“English Title: View of New York by Johannes Vingboons.” The Atlantic World: America and the Netherlands. Global Gateway, 2016. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“Explorer-Age of Discovery.” Henry Hudson. The Mariners’ Museum, 2016. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“Henry Hudson Memorial Column, Bronx, New York City.” Flickr. Yahoo!, 2016. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“Henry Hudson Park-Henry Hudson Monument.” NYC Parks. New York City Department of Parks and Recreations. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“Monument Detail.” Fieldguide to U.S. Public Monuments and Memorials. Fieldguide to U.S. Public Monuments and Memorials, 2005. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

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William the Silent

By: Sabrina Sun, Ashley Thach, Joseph Yu Section 8

The William the Silent statue is approximately 15 feet in height and is installed on a square stone base that is 6 feet in height and weighs abut 2,000 pounds. William is positioned with his right hand raised to his chest and pointing with his index finger. He holds an open scroll in his left hand. A small dog also sits at his feet on his right. He wears the clothes of a civilian magistrate of the 16th century and has a mustache and a beard.

William the Silent

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William the Silent 40.499858, -74.446793

William the Silent is located in the Voorhees mall section of Rutgers University’s College Avenue Campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It is located along Seminary Place, where there are several academic buildings. The statue was donated to Rutgers by Dr. Fenton B. Turck to commemorate the university’s Dutch heritage. It was collaborated with Rutgers alumnus Leonor F. Loree. The statue is William I, Prince of Orange who is the early leader of the Dutch revolt against Habsburg Spain which led to the independence of the Netherlands in 1648. For this reason, William is known as the “Father of the Fatherland”.

Our group chose this artifact because we often see it when going to classes in Scott Hall. We were interested in the history behind this statue and wanted to understand its significance in the history of Rutgers. Today, the statue is included in student life in students and community events such as graduation ceremonies, pep rallies, Dutch-American festivals and protests. Initially, students wanted to make the school color orange, in reference to the Price of Orange from Rutgers’ Dutch heritage. However, the Rutgers student publication (later named the Daily Targum), proposed the color scarlet to be the official school color. Many Rutgers students call the statue “Willie the Silent” and “Still Bill”. According the tradition, the statue is expected to whistle when a female virgin walks by.

Occasionally, the statue is a target of vandalism from the ongoing rivalry between Rutgers and Princeton University, since the first intercollegiate football game. Princeton students have frequently doused the statue with orange paint as well as other forms of vandalization.

Works Cited:

“Paths to Historic Rutgers: A Self-Guided Tour.” Rutgers University Libraries. Web. 06 Apr. 2016. <>

“The Silent Treatment.” Rutgers Magazine. Web. 06 Apr. 2016. <>

“William III (of Orange).” BBC – History. BBC. Web. 06 Apr. 2016. <>

“William of Orange or King William II/III.” Undiscovered Scotland. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“William the Silent of Holland.” Corvallis Today. Web. 6 Apr. 2016.

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Streets of New York: Wall Street

Wall Street

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Wall Street 40.706001, -74.008801

By Sarah Kim, Amy Mei, Yulin Ren (Section 08)

Everyone has heard of the famous streets of New York such as Wall Street, Broadway, Maiden Lane, Love Lane, and many more popular streets. However, not everyone knows where these street names originated from. Most of the street names of New York, and even the borough names such as Manhattan were actually named after Dutch influences! With New York being such a popular tourist spot, it is interesting to learn of the Dutch impacts on such big cities and streets.


Our chosen Dutch “artifact” can be found throughout the streets of New York City, scattered in various corners, dominating the identity of the avenues and streets of this urban city; street names and street signs around the Big Apple bear many Dutch influences.  Perhaps the most famous Dutch influenced street name is the world-renowned, Wall Street.  The original Dutch name was “de Waal Straat” which was directly translated to “Wall Street.”   In the 17th century, the wall created the northern boundary of the New Amsterdam settlement that was established with defensive intentions.  The name directly refers to a wall that was build by Dutch settlers on the southern tip of Manhattan Island; there was a war between the English and Dutch, which potentially could have expanded into the island’s American colonies.  The wall was never actually used for defense, but its legacy still holds strong, as Wall Street is now a figurative bastion of the world’s financial market and economy.  Wall Street is a 1.1 kilometer stretch of sidewalk that extends across eight blocks from Broadway to South Street, making it a monumental landmark in the heart of the city.

We chose to research Wall Street, because we’re all pursuing business for our bachelor’s degree at Rutgers University.  New York is such a popular and beautiful city which attracts millions of tourists and it was very interesting to learn how much the Dutch influenced this city.  But most importantly, we’re most invested in NYC, because many of us dream of working in the city one day, specifically on Wall Street, to fully immerse ourselves in the heart of business.  Wall Street is still an emblem of power, status, and authority in modern day society, so people still treat it with the same respect it was founded on.


Works Cited

“Dutch Art.” Google Books. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“History of Wall Street.” (Business Reference Services, Library of Congress). Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“NYC Street Names and Their Stories.” Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“Wall Street & Stock Market History.” History of Wall Street and the Stock Markets. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“Where Does the Name “Wall Street” Come From? | Investopedia.” Investopedia. 2004. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

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