Theodore Frelinghuysen – The Dutch Abraham Lincoln

The First Reformed Church at 9 Bayard Street in New Brunswick not only serves as one of the most historic buildings in New Brunswick, but as the final resting place for Theodore Frelinghuysen. The only problemis that the whereabouts of the grave of Mr. Frelinghuysen, seventh President of Rutgers University (then Rutgers College) & former US Senator from NJ, is unknown as it has been lost to the weathering of the cemetery and the neglect from the caretakers. However, the lack of a physical object does not mean that Mr. Frelinghuysen’s body is not buried at the Dutch church’s resting site, nor does it take away from the accomplishments of this man that are owed to the Dutch dynasty he was a central figure of.


(Not pictured: Theodore Frelinghuysen’s headstone)

9 Bayard St, New Brunswick, NJ, United States

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9 Bayard St, New Brunswick, NJ, United States 40.495057, -74.442349

Theodore J. Frelinguysen, Theodore’s great-grandfather, served as the minister of the First Reformed Church in New Brunswick and was central to the First Great Awakening, and with that, the spread of Dutch-influenced Christianity. Additionally, as part of the Church leadership position, TJF was very involved in the founding of Queen’s College and  Theodore’s father served in the Revolution, and many of his relatives were influential in local politics and the goings of daily life. In New Brunswick, the Frelinghuysens were the Kennedys. With this inevitability on his shoulders, Theodore attended the College of New Jersey (now Princeton) and practiced law with his brother and Richard Stockton, whose name recognition rings just as true today as it did then.

Frelinghuysen flourished in the political sphere in which he served as US Senator from New Jersey and had many of his votes and political actions influenced by his religion and Dutch roots. He was even the vice-presidential candidate under Henry Clay in the 1844 Presidential Election. Frelinghuysen was an abolitionist when it was unpopular to do so, and his path eerily followed the beginnings of Abraham Lincoln’s: “a lawyer, a politician, a Whig-turned-Republican… had a strong religious commitment and personally found slavery immoral… sought to preserve the Union and hesitated to follow the abolitionist line of denunciation of the South.” (Eells 68). Unfortunately, Theodore didn’t try again for higher office, but he did return to his New Brunswick roots to serve as the seventh President of Rutgers after his stint at New York University.

The shame about Frelinghuysen’s missing grave is that it could have been one of the few monuments to the man and his career. Buildings around Rutgers bear his family’s name, such as the dormitory or the street, but that is not directly Theodore’s honor to be had. In fact, it seems much of what Theodore stood for was something that should have been remembered, or at least recognized to be significant during his time, which is one of the main reasons we wished to recognize his achievements. Accounts of Frelinghuysen’s speeches on the floor of Congress remember him as a passionate, reasoned man who represented his constituents well, so he deserves, if not a grave, a marker of his significance to the nation and our community here in New Brunswick.

Sean Giblin, Laura Friedman, Evan Pié (Section 10)

Works Cited
Eells, Robert. Forgotten Saint: The Life of Theodore Frelinghuysen: A Case Study of Christian Leadership. Lanham, MD: U of America, 1987. Print.
“FRELINGHUYSEN, Theodore – Biographical Information.” FRELINGHUYSEN, Theodore – Biographical Information. N.p., n.d. Web.
“Theodore Frelinghuysen (1787 – 1862) – Find A Grave Memorial.” Theodore Frelinghuysen (1787 – 1862) – Find A Grave Memorial. N.p., n.d. Web.

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New Brunswick Mines

Steven Leichner, Makenzie Bayless, Isha Khosla, Connor Grant

Section 2


The copper mine is currently under, what is today, the Voorhees Mall on the College Avenue Campus. It runs parallel to Hamilton Street and Mine Street. It passes through Robinson Street, Hartwell Street, Guilden Street, Easton Ave, Union Street, and College Avenue. The mine is about 60 feet under the ground and allegedly runs hundreds of feet under the Raritan River. The Dutch created many mines in New Jersey during the 1600s. The New Brunswick mines were first discovered fruitful in the 1750s when the owner of the land, Philip French discovered heavy chunks of copper. Philip French, the reason we have a French Street, had to soon allow a copper mining company to lease his farmland. The mine is no longer used.

In 1751, a New Jersey mining company led by Elias Boudinot contracted a century-long lease on French’s farm. The company subsequently dug a mine approximately 300 feet from the Raritan River and uncovered heaps of copper. The mines that are now replaced by Rutgers University’s property tells the story of the Dutch that arrived in America and attempted to make a profitable living through the mining industry. Stories of the Dutch can be seen through investigations of Ford Hall, which has a tunnel that used to be a mine shaft. The investigation discovered locked up rooms, crawl spaces, and stairwells that indicated previous activities in the underground tunnel. The mine shafts created by the Dutch are also involved in other parts of American history. The mine that once ran down Mine Street is said to have been a means of escape for slaves and a passage for smuggling alcohol during Prohibition.

The fact that there are little-known, yet extensive, mines under the College Avenue campus illuminates that New Brunswick has a deep, rich history that is not very well-known to the Rutgers community. A portion of this mine shaft, as previously mentioned, is even present in Ford Hall. It’s a shame that we tend to be so present-oriented, and that there is a long history of this area that is often neglected. We picked the mine shaft largely because of its relative anonymity. When Makenzie first mentioned that there were abandoned mines right underneath College Avenue, I was very surprised and wondered how many people even knew about the mines. For this reason, we thought we should do our project on the mines; to give people this same surprise, and broaden their knowledge of the history of New Brunswick.

The underground mine shafts located below certain areas on the College Avenue campus are a simple microcosm of the extensive history surrounding Rutgers University. Much of this history is not recognized by the students and faculty of Rutgers, alongside the other inhabitants of the city of New Brunswick. I believe the unknown presence of these shafts, especially those used as escape routes for slaves, a passage for arms, and the transportation of alcohol during Prohibition, are something that would fascinate others if they knew. To realize there is something out of view that is so complex and historically valuable right below the streets we walk on is captivating, but also unfortunate that its presence is generally not acknowledged. It teaches us that no matter where we are, there is a history behind our environment that we should learn to embrace because modern society tends to ignore these facts. Who would have known the reason why MIne Street has its name? Ultimately, we should look beyond what is present in our field and sight to gain a new appreciation for the world around us and teach others to do the same.

ford hall

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ford hall 40.500499, -74.448738



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William the Silent

By: Sabrina Sun, Ashley Thach, Joseph Yu Section 8

The William the Silent statue is approximately 15 feet in height and is installed on a square stone base that is 6 feet in height and weighs abut 2,000 pounds. William is positioned with his right hand raised to his chest and pointing with his index finger. He holds an open scroll in his left hand. A small dog also sits at his feet on his right. He wears the clothes of a civilian magistrate of the 16th century and has a mustache and a beard.

William the Silent

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William the Silent 40.499858, -74.446793

William the Silent is located in the Voorhees mall section of Rutgers University’s College Avenue Campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It is located along Seminary Place, where there are several academic buildings. The statue was donated to Rutgers by Dr. Fenton B. Turck to commemorate the university’s Dutch heritage. It was collaborated with Rutgers alumnus Leonor F. Loree. The statue is William I, Prince of Orange who is the early leader of the Dutch revolt against Habsburg Spain which led to the independence of the Netherlands in 1648. For this reason, William is known as the “Father of the Fatherland”.

Our group chose this artifact because we often see it when going to classes in Scott Hall. We were interested in the history behind this statue and wanted to understand its significance in the history of Rutgers. Today, the statue is included in student life in students and community events such as graduation ceremonies, pep rallies, Dutch-American festivals and protests. Initially, students wanted to make the school color orange, in reference to the Price of Orange from Rutgers’ Dutch heritage. However, the Rutgers student publication (later named the Daily Targum), proposed the color scarlet to be the official school color. Many Rutgers students call the statue “Willie the Silent” and “Still Bill”. According the tradition, the statue is expected to whistle when a female virgin walks by.

Occasionally, the statue is a target of vandalism from the ongoing rivalry between Rutgers and Princeton University, since the first intercollegiate football game. Princeton students have frequently doused the statue with orange paint as well as other forms of vandalization.

Works Cited:

“Paths to Historic Rutgers: A Self-Guided Tour.” Rutgers University Libraries. Web. 06 Apr. 2016. <>

“The Silent Treatment.” Rutgers Magazine. Web. 06 Apr. 2016. <>

“William III (of Orange).” BBC – History. BBC. Web. 06 Apr. 2016. <>

“William of Orange or King William II/III.” Undiscovered Scotland. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“William the Silent of Holland.” Corvallis Today. Web. 6 Apr. 2016.

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William the Silent


 Smithsonian American Art Museums via Art Inventories Catalog
Smithsonian American Art Museums via Art Inventories Catalog
 Smithsonian American Art Museums via Art Inventories Catalog
Smithsonian American Art Museums via Art Inventories Catalog

The statue of William the Silent stands on a square base, the statue being green, made of brass, and the base being an off-white, made of stone. William the Statue wears the clothes of a 16th century civilian, and is . The statue has a mustache and beard, with a small dog sitting at the base of his feet. In his hands, William has his right hand pointing upwards with his index finger pointing outwards, while his left hand holds a scroll. William wears traditional 16th century clothes, including a ruffled collar, a long coat and a buttoned vest.

William the Silent

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William the Silent 40.499858, -74.446793


The statue of William the Silent is located at Rutgers University, specifically in front in Voorhees Mall on the College Avenue campus. The monument was donated in 1928, when the Holland Society of New York presented it to the University. This was on behalf of Fenton B. Turck, a physician who acquired it in the Netherlands after World War I.  William the Silent, the Prince of Orange, led a revolution against Spain, which ultimately led to the creation and the formation of the Netherlands. Interestingly, he is called William the Silent for refusing to testify against the Queen. The statue commemorates the Dutch culture, a physical representation of the roots of Rutgers. The Dutch had an open culture as they were accepting of different religions and beliefs, which is a reminder of Rutgers diverse community. William the Silent inspired the founders of Rutgers, who admired the “freedom, tolerance and independence” he stood for (Yacoo). We picked this object because we have seen this object many times, but did not know the history behind it. After learning more about it, we also want to educate our fellow students, as many do not know the history surrounding it. Often, this statue is mistaken for William Shakespeare, which is a shame because of its rich background. Another interesting fact about this artifact is that it is actually a replica of a work by Dutch sculptor Lodewyk Royer. A mold from the original statue was preserved in Brussels during World War I and the government granted permission for one copy to be made, with the mold also being destroyed after. This replica was then purchased by Fenton B. Turck, who graciously gifted it to the University.


Berkman, Lisa. “Faculty Members Signify Spirit of William the Silent.” The Daily Targum. N.p., 24 Feb. 2012. Web. 6 Apr. 2016. <>

Yacoo, Ryan. “William the Silent Stands Tall over U.” The Daily Targum. N.p., 13 Oct. 2005. Web. 6 Apr. 2016. <>.


Michelle Hayek, Biological Sciences and Political Science 2019

Namita Abraham, ITI 2019

Malvika Khanna, Finance 2019


Dutch Influence at Rutgers University

Nishitha Kambhaladinne, Natasha Khatri, Ayesha Misra, Sushma Mannimala – Section 6

Portrait of Cornelis Claesz. Anslo, 1641 from Zimmerli Art Museum
Portrait of Cornelis Claesz. Anslo, 1641 from Zimmerli Art Museum

A Physical Description of the Painting:
This painting is called Portrait of Cornelis Claesz Anslo. He was a Dutch Mennonite preacher who was also a cloth merchant in the mid 1600s. The painting was initially made to only be admired by Anslo’s close family and friends. It was etched onto Japanese paper. Anslo lived in Amsterdam for his whole life, where Rembrandt painted this portrait of him. Rembrandt was known to draw and etch people of the Mennonite church quite often. Rembrandt depicted the merchant’s success through his rich attire. Rembrandt’s paintings are all a part of the Dutch Golden Age, because of how his work influenced Dutch history and culture.

Zimmerli Art Museum

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Zimmerli Art Museum 40.499989, -74.445881


This painting, Portrait of Cornelis Claesz Anslo, is located in the Zimmerli Museum at Rutgers University. The painting was brought from the Netherlands to America at Rutgers University because of the relationship between the Dutch and Americans, and the influence of Dutch culture in America, specifically on Rutgers campus. The date of when the object was placed there is unknown. It was given to Rutgers University by the estate of Raymond V. Carpenter. This painting was created by Rembrandt van Rijn, a painter who is considered to be one of the greatest painters in Dutch History.

This is related to the Dutch because it was created by the Dutch artist Rembrandt. It signifies the importance of art in Dutch culture. In the lecture by Dean Jones, she goes through how art allowed the Dutch to develop their culture and capture it. Many of the paintings by Dutch artists are portraits because they believe in capturing reality. Many of the paintings discussed by Dean Jones follow this pattern of candid paintings. This influenced many American painters to adopt self portraits and made this a more popular theme in America. Many American-Dutch artists use these techniques today to maintain their culture.

This painting is connected to Rutgers because it was gifted to Rutgers to be placed in the Zimmerli Museum on campus. It adds to the enormous amount of Dutch history and culture in the Rutgers and New Brunswick area. Henry Rutgers himself was of Dutch descent so since the very beginning of Rutgers history, it was already being influenced by the Netherlands. Putting this painting on campus continues and expands on the never ending history.

We picked this object because it is located on campus in the Zimmerli Art Museum and is related to Dutch history. Some of us have seen this painting when we visited the museum. It is available for anyone to see and is free to the public. Today, people can look at this painting and realize how art was at the heart of Dutch culture. It shows that Dutch artists took time to replicate nature as best as they could and it was important for them to get their message across.

Rembrandt expresses the importance of capturing nature in each of his paintings. He believes that “ in paintings the greatest and most natural movement has [to be] expressed, which is also the main reason why they [take] so long to execute” (Rembrandt). He stresses the importance of working on the art to capture each detail and making it as close to nature as possible. The portrait was meant to capture the essence of Cornelis Claesz. He was a rich and powerful man who always had a stern expression. The point of the painting was to emulate his personality through the painting. Most of Rembrandt’s works were relevant to the city of Amsterdam and surrounding towns of Holland,“as both a flourishing artistic center and a cosmopolitan, polyglot community in which a variety of religious faiths were tolerated.” The man in the painting was a Mennonite preacher who believed in religious tolerance. This painting envelops the Dutch culture on campus and gives insight into the values of the Dutch.

Works Cited

“Cornelis Claesz Anslo.” Norton Simon Museum. Norton Simon Museum, 2016. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“The Mennonite Minister Cornelis Claesz.” Web Gallery of Art. Web Gallery of Art, Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

Rembrandt. Digital image. Zimmerli Art Museum. Rutgers University, Web. 6 Apr. 2016.

“Rembrandt Quotes.” Rembrandt. N.p., 03 Apr. 2004. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

Fowler, David J. “Benevolent Patriot: Henry Rutgers, 1745-1830.” Rutgers University Libraries: Special Collections and University Archives:. Rutgers University, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

Dickey, Stephanie S. “Contemporary Explorations in the Culture of the Low Countries.” Google Books. Metropolitan Museum of Art, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

The Queens College Charter Window at Kirkpatrick Chapel

Megha Karnam and Victor Kim


ColonelHenry via Wikimedia Commons CC BY-SA 3.0

Physical Description of Artifact:

The Queens College Charter Window is an opalescent stained glass window located in the Kirkpatrick Hotel directly above the entrance of the Chapel. It depicts the signing of the charter that created Queen’s College in 1766 by Governor William Franklin. At the bottom of the window is a dedication of the window to Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen and his sons for their support and advocacy for the establishment of the college.

Kirkpatrick Chapel

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Kirkpatrick Chapel 40.498861, -74.445830


The Queen’s College Charter Window is located in the Kirkpatrick Chapel in New Brunswick above the chapel’s narthex (the entrance of the church) and a choir loft. This location was probably chosen because the Kirkpatrick Chapel is the chapel to Rutgers University and the “Charter Window” commemorates ministers who were instrumental in the founding of Queen’s College, which is now Rutgers. Thus a Rutgers’ chapel is an appropriate location considering the history associated with this object. The window was donated in 1941 (175 years after the signing of the charter establishing Queen’s College). It was donated by the Frelinghuysen family and dedicated to Reverend Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen and his sons. Frelinghuysen was a Dutch-Reformed minister who proposed the idea to establish a college in New Jersey. His sons, Reverend Theodorus Frelinghuysen II and Reverend John Frelinghuysen, continued their father’s efforts, which led to the signing of the charter of Queen’s College in 1766.

We picked the Queen’s College Charter Window because it depicts the moment that was the start of our university. The signing of the charter was a result of growing tensions between the Dutch Reformed churches about whether an assembly should be formed to educate and ordain ministers for the pulpit. Professor Richard P. McCormick in his book, Rutgers, A Bicentennial History, states that the Queen’s College was “a child of controversy.” Its establishment was in the midst of the Great Awakening, which was a period of religious upheaval in the British colonies. Religious motives were dominant in the finding of this college, which is why the history behind the Charter Window is interesting. It shows how much the college has transformed from the day the charter has been signed to now. It speaks to people today because it shows how Rutgers University started from being a small college, deeply rooted in religion, to a large university comprised of a diverse group of people.



Di Ionno, M. (2012, August 08). Di Ionno: At historic Rutgers chapel, stained glass is still shining. Retrieved April 06, 2016, from
Frusciano, T. J. (n.d.). A Historical Sketch of Rutgers University: Section 1. Retrieved April 06, 2016, from

The Architecture of the Kirkpatrick Chapel

By, John, Sanan, Andrew

The Kirkpatrick Chapel was built in memory of Sophia Astley Kirkpatrick, wife of Littleton Kirkpatrick, trustee of Rutgers College. Henry Hardenburgh was the designer of the chapel, Grandson of the first President of Rutgers Jacob Hardenburgh. He went on to have a successful building career, and this was at the forefront of it. The Chapel was first designed to be used as both a library and for education and for worshipping purposes, until another Dutch building was built, Voorhees Hall, and the Chapel expanded it religious space in full. In 1916 around the 150th anniversary Henry Hardenburgh made expansions and renovations to further accommodate Rutgers student worship. He added a new chancel, two properly designed organ chambers, and a new stained glass window named, “Jesus, the teacher of ages” in memory of the first Rutgers President. The Chapel may be in America, but it is certainly Dutch, not just for the historical reasons but especially for its looks.

When we begin to look specifically at the architecture of the Kirkpatrick Chapel, we see the many similarities it has with Churches in The Netherlands. The Kirkpatrick Chapel features a design of tall and high center with two smaller triangles supporting it. This other Church, Grote of St Laurenskerk Rotterdam, was constructed in the Netherlands hundreds of years before the Kirkpatrick Chapel, but still features the same design. A high and tall center, with smaller triangles on the side supporting it. Both churches also include windows that are  elongated in an ovular fashion. The Grote of St Laurenskerk Rotterdam was the first stone Church constructed in the Netherlands. The Kirkpatrick Chapel was also constructed from the finest brownstone.

grote of st laurenskerk rotterdam
grote of St Laurenskerk Rotterdam,

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grote of St Laurenskerk Rotterdam, 51.921435, 4.484906

As there are Dutch chapels with similar exteriors as that of the Kirkpatrick Chapel in New Jersey, there are also Dutch chapels with almost identical interiors as that of the Kirkpatrick Chapel as well. An example of such a chapel is the Dimnent Chapel located in Holland. Like many Dutch chapels and holy areas, there are large rows of seats for subscribed worshipers, although what significantly links the interiors of the Dimnent Chapel and the Kirkpatrick Chapel, are the large stained glass windows and the tent-like architectural design of both chapels. In terms of the windows, both chapels sport numerous stain glass windows – one large window in the front, and numerous smaller ones on the sides, all with significant religious or important figures designed into them. The general interior shape of both chapels are similar as well, as both chapels are substantially smaller in size than most Dutch chapels, with inclined ceilings and beams. Even the ceiling framing and support are visually linked, as in both chapels, they are wooden, and tread the direction of the ceiling to the side walls. Although there are many similarities between the interior designs of the Dimnent Chapel and the Kirkpatrick Chapel, it is evidently apparent that the Kirkpatrick Chapel contains large white beams used to support the weight of the ceiling and the secondary wall linings while the Dimnent Chapel, does not.

dimnent chapel

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dimnent chapel 48.216038, 16.378984

Works Cited