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William the Silent

 

 Smithsonian American Art Museums via Art Inventories Catalog
Smithsonian American Art Museums via Art Inventories Catalog
 Smithsonian American Art Museums via Art Inventories Catalog
Smithsonian American Art Museums via Art Inventories Catalog

The statue of William the Silent stands on a square base, the statue being green, made of brass, and the base being an off-white, made of stone. William the Statue wears the clothes of a 16th century civilian, and is . The statue has a mustache and beard, with a small dog sitting at the base of his feet. In his hands, William has his right hand pointing upwards with his index finger pointing outwards, while his left hand holds a scroll. William wears traditional 16th century clothes, including a ruffled collar, a long coat and a buttoned vest.

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William the Silent

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William the Silent 40.499858, -74.446793

Essay:

The statue of William the Silent is located at Rutgers University, specifically in front in Voorhees Mall on the College Avenue campus. The monument was donated in 1928, when the Holland Society of New York presented it to the University. This was on behalf of Fenton B. Turck, a physician who acquired it in the Netherlands after World War I.  William the Silent, the Prince of Orange, led a revolution against Spain, which ultimately led to the creation and the formation of the Netherlands. Interestingly, he is called William the Silent for refusing to testify against the Queen. The statue commemorates the Dutch culture, a physical representation of the roots of Rutgers. The Dutch had an open culture as they were accepting of different religions and beliefs, which is a reminder of Rutgers diverse community. William the Silent inspired the founders of Rutgers, who admired the “freedom, tolerance and independence” he stood for (Yacoo). We picked this object because we have seen this object many times, but did not know the history behind it. After learning more about it, we also want to educate our fellow students, as many do not know the history surrounding it. Often, this statue is mistaken for William Shakespeare, which is a shame because of its rich background. Another interesting fact about this artifact is that it is actually a replica of a work by Dutch sculptor Lodewyk Royer. A mold from the original statue was preserved in Brussels during World War I and the government granted permission for one copy to be made, with the mold also being destroyed after. This replica was then purchased by Fenton B. Turck, who graciously gifted it to the University.

Bibliography:

Berkman, Lisa. “Faculty Members Signify Spirit of William the Silent.” The Daily Targum. N.p., 24 Feb. 2012. Web. 6 Apr. 2016. <http://www.dailytargum.com/article/2012/02/faculty-members-signify-spirit-of-william-the-silent?TNNoMobile>

Yacoo, Ryan. “William the Silent Stands Tall over U.” The Daily Targum. N.p., 13 Oct. 2005. Web. 6 Apr. 2016. <http://www.dailytargum.com/article/2005/10/william-the-silent-stands-tall-over-u->.

By:

Michelle Hayek, Biological Sciences and Political Science 2019

Namita Abraham, ITI 2019

Malvika Khanna, Finance 2019

 

The Grave of Reverend John Henry Livingston

By Vanessa Gao, Timothy Reilly, April Rickle, and Paul Shin

John Henry Livingston earned his Doctorate in theology at Utrecht University.  He then returned to the United States, where he was born, and became the leader of the Reformed Church in New York City.  The story of John Henry Livingston represents that of an American with Dutch ancestry, who returned to his ancestral homeland for educational purposes, only to return to the place of his birth and become a successful pastor.

Livingston was the fourth president and professor theology at Queen’s College, what is now known as Rutgers University. He was also the most influential reverend at the First Reformed Church in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Livingston started as the reverend for the Church, but was offered presidency at Queens College in 1807. He did not accept this offer until 1810, and then continued to serve until his death in 1825.

After Livingston accepted presidency, Queens College was forced to close because of financial problems. He continued to teach theology at the theology school, while also raising funds to help reopen Queens College. Livingston died on January 25, 1825 and was then buried at the First Reformed Church at 9 Bayard Street New Brunswick, New Jersey. Queens College was reopened 10 months later.

Livingston’s grave is particularly special because of the over ground stone grave. This stone grave was erected to emphasize his dignity, and was funded by the church. This artifact, the grave, is the last remnant of one of the earliest presidents of our university.  As a student at this university, it is important to understand the history of important figures that helped shape our universities past. We must be respectful to ancestors of this church and commemorate their contributions to the creation of Rutgers University.

Interested parties may get there by taking the EE bus to Patterson street, and then walking down Neilson to the corner of Bayard.

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Reverend John Henry Livingston's Grave

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Reverend John Henry Livingston\'s Grave 40.495057, -74.442349

Livingston’s grave consists of two parts- a gravestone, and a box grave. The gravestone itself is not as fancy as one might imagine; it stands to the left of the box grave, and the stone cut inscription has weathered over the years to the point that it is nearly illegible.

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The box grave, which once had Livingston’s name carved into it, is similarly worn due to the fact that its inscription has lied face-up, exposed to the wind and rain, for so many years. The point of the box grave, Reverend Hartmut Kramer-Mills told us, was to emphasize the dignity of the person buried below. Though the body is interred in the ground, a stone box is erected over it as a secondary monument. In recent years, a violent storm knocked a tree branch onto the box tomb, breaking its face. Though the tomb was repaired, the mortar has evaporated, leaving deep cracks in the stone.

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Though the tombs are slowly falling into disrepair, one may still find the full inscriptions on this website, along with a description of Livingston’s life. Though he has been gone for nearly 200 years, Livingston will live on in memory as a man “with dignified appearance, extensive erudition, almost unrivalled [sic] talents as a sacred orator and professor, were blended manners polished, candid and attractive, all ennobled by the entire devotion to his Savior” (Stanton).

Works Cited

Frusciano, Thomas J. “John Henry Livingston.” John Henry Livingston. Rutgers University. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

Stanton, Shirley. “Find A Grave – Millions of Cemetery Records and Online Memorials.” Find A Grave – Millions of Cemetery Records and Online Memorials. Find a Grave, 7 Sept. 2013. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

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Pannekoeken

Pictured here is Pannekoeken Huis located in Minneapolis, MN. This eatery serves authentic Dutch dishes including the delicious pannekoeken. Image source: Pannekoken Huis

Pancakes can be found almost anywhere where breakfast food can be served. The Dutch Pannekoeken is slightly different than the modified American pancakes, and the Pannekoeken Huis in St. Louis Park, Minnesota is continuing the Dutch tradition by serving traditional Pannekoeken for breakfast and dinner in flavors anywhere from Caramel Apple and Upside Down Cake, to Shepherd’s Pie and Meat and Vegetable.

They are found very frequently around the United States because people like pannekoeken and pancakes. As people migrated into the Americas, they brought their foods and recipes with them. This led to the insertion of the pancake into American culture, and the different ingredients available led to the creation of the American pancake, as opposed to the original pannekoek.

 

Institutions like the Pannekoeken Huis in Minnesota are helping to preserve the traditional Dutch idea of the original pancake. Throughout the United States and different parts of the world, varying cultures and people have their own personal representation of the pancake. Its versatility allows for it to adapt to different cooking styles and personal tastes while still keeping the general idea of the “pancake”.

 

Image source: Meaningful Mama

Pancakes have transcended over time to incorporate themselves in American cuisine. This dish shows the integration of different cultures into the society we know today. There are many subtle ways in which Dutch influences are part of our lives and this is one. Fortunately, the great history of the pannekoeken is continued through Rutgers in the serving of the pancake in the dining halls of Rutgers.

 

We picked pancakes, or as the Dutch say, pannekoeken, because they are a main staple of American breakfast food and can be found in diners and homes across the country. When eating pancakes there’s usually little thought as to where they come from, and it’s interesting that one of our most beloved breakfast foods originated from the Dutch.

This is the original pannekoeken found in a restaurant in the Netherlands. You can see the syrup used for the dish, along with powdered sugar. Image source: Walking on Travels

Pancakes, both as a food and an artifact, have survived the test of time due to their deliciousness and versatility in eating, as they can be eaten as a breakfast food, or even for lunch and dinner as is traditionally done in the Netherlands.

 

 

Pannekoeken Recipe:

INGREDIENTS (7)

  • 250 g flour (sieved)
  • 5 g salt
  • 1 egg
  • 10 g yeast
  • 4,5 dl milk
  • about 40 g butter (for in the pan)
  • Any additional ingredients

Rest of recipe can be found here

Map of IHOP

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IHOP

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IHOP 40.510539, -74.485143

Bibliography

“History of the Pancake.” My Old Dutch Pancake House, n.d. Web. <http%3A%2F%2Fwww.myolddutch.com%2FHistory%2FHistory-of-the-pancake.aspx>.
“Pannekoeken Huis.” Pannekoeken Huis. Pannekoeken Huis, n.d. Web. <http://www.pannekoeken-mn.com/about-us/>.
“Pannenkoeken – Amsterdam, Netherlands | Local Food Guide.” Pannenkoeken – Amsterdam, Netherlands | Local Food Guide. Eat Your World, n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2016. <http://eatyourworld.com/destinations/europe/the_netherlands/amsterdam/what_to_eat/pannenkoeken>.
“Where Did Pancakes Originate From?” Luka Malgaj, 03 Nov. 2009. Web. <http://ezinearticles.com/?Where-Did-Pancakes-Originate-From?&id=3202279>.

Dutch Influence at Rutgers University

Nishitha Kambhaladinne, Natasha Khatri, Ayesha Misra, Sushma Mannimala – Section 6

Portrait of Cornelis Claesz. Anslo, 1641 from Zimmerli Art Museum
Portrait of Cornelis Claesz. Anslo, 1641 from Zimmerli Art Museum

A Physical Description of the Painting:
This painting is called Portrait of Cornelis Claesz Anslo. He was a Dutch Mennonite preacher who was also a cloth merchant in the mid 1600s. The painting was initially made to only be admired by Anslo’s close family and friends. It was etched onto Japanese paper. Anslo lived in Amsterdam for his whole life, where Rembrandt painted this portrait of him. Rembrandt was known to draw and etch people of the Mennonite church quite often. Rembrandt depicted the merchant’s success through his rich attire. Rembrandt’s paintings are all a part of the Dutch Golden Age, because of how his work influenced Dutch history and culture.

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Zimmerli Art Museum

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Zimmerli Art Museum 40.499989, -74.445881

Essay:

This painting, Portrait of Cornelis Claesz Anslo, is located in the Zimmerli Museum at Rutgers University. The painting was brought from the Netherlands to America at Rutgers University because of the relationship between the Dutch and Americans, and the influence of Dutch culture in America, specifically on Rutgers campus. The date of when the object was placed there is unknown. It was given to Rutgers University by the estate of Raymond V. Carpenter. This painting was created by Rembrandt van Rijn, a painter who is considered to be one of the greatest painters in Dutch History.

This is related to the Dutch because it was created by the Dutch artist Rembrandt. It signifies the importance of art in Dutch culture. In the lecture by Dean Jones, she goes through how art allowed the Dutch to develop their culture and capture it. Many of the paintings by Dutch artists are portraits because they believe in capturing reality. Many of the paintings discussed by Dean Jones follow this pattern of candid paintings. This influenced many American painters to adopt self portraits and made this a more popular theme in America. Many American-Dutch artists use these techniques today to maintain their culture.

This painting is connected to Rutgers because it was gifted to Rutgers to be placed in the Zimmerli Museum on campus. It adds to the enormous amount of Dutch history and culture in the Rutgers and New Brunswick area. Henry Rutgers himself was of Dutch descent so since the very beginning of Rutgers history, it was already being influenced by the Netherlands. Putting this painting on campus continues and expands on the never ending history.

We picked this object because it is located on campus in the Zimmerli Art Museum and is related to Dutch history. Some of us have seen this painting when we visited the museum. It is available for anyone to see and is free to the public. Today, people can look at this painting and realize how art was at the heart of Dutch culture. It shows that Dutch artists took time to replicate nature as best as they could and it was important for them to get their message across.

Rembrandt expresses the importance of capturing nature in each of his paintings. He believes that “ in paintings the greatest and most natural movement has [to be] expressed, which is also the main reason why they [take] so long to execute” (Rembrandt). He stresses the importance of working on the art to capture each detail and making it as close to nature as possible. The portrait was meant to capture the essence of Cornelis Claesz. He was a rich and powerful man who always had a stern expression. The point of the painting was to emulate his personality through the painting. Most of Rembrandt’s works were relevant to the city of Amsterdam and surrounding towns of Holland,“as both a flourishing artistic center and a cosmopolitan, polyglot community in which a variety of religious faiths were tolerated.” The man in the painting was a Mennonite preacher who believed in religious tolerance. This painting envelops the Dutch culture on campus and gives insight into the values of the Dutch.

Works Cited

“Cornelis Claesz Anslo.” Norton Simon Museum. Norton Simon Museum, 2016. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“The Mennonite Minister Cornelis Claesz.” Web Gallery of Art. Web Gallery of Art, Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

Rembrandt. Digital image. Zimmerli Art Museum. Rutgers University, Web. 6 Apr. 2016.

“Rembrandt Quotes.” Rembrandt. N.p., 03 Apr. 2004. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

Fowler, David J. “Benevolent Patriot: Henry Rutgers, 1745-1830.” Rutgers University Libraries: Special Collections and University Archives:. Rutgers University, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

Dickey, Stephanie S. “Contemporary Explorations in the Culture of the Low Countries.” Google Books. Metropolitan Museum of Art, n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

Spuyten Duyvil: The Duyvil’s in the Details

The Henry Hudson Bridge overlooking the Harlem River in front of the Spuyten Duyvil Metro-North train station. Photo from tribecacitizen.com

In Dutch, “Spuyten Duyvil,” the most-accepted spelling these days, can be pronounced two ways; one pronunciation can be translated as “devil’s whirlpool” and the other can be translated as “spite the devil.” Spuyten Duyvil is an upper middle class neighborhood of the Bronx, New York City, located in the upper Northwest corner of the the Bronx and New York City as a whole. The neighborhood is located where the Harlem River branches off from the Hudson River, directly across from Manhattan Island and what is today the Inwood neighborhood. Today its area has many other traces of the Dutch including the Harlem River, the Hudson River, and the Henry Hudson Bridge, named after the explorer sent by the Dutch to settle the region. Other Dutch neighborhoods are also close by such as Manhattan and Yonkers to the North.  We picked this neighborhood because one of our group’s members, Trevor, passed by the Spuyten Duyvil train station on his way to Poughkeepsie and instantly recognized the name’s Dutch origins.

When the Dutch settled here in the 1600s, they named the creek flowing around the neighborhood “Spuyten Duyvil.” The reason for this name, roughly translating to “devil’s whirlpool,” is due to legends of events happening in the river. According to some, a Dutch messenger was sent to the Spuyten Duyvil neighborhood by way of the creek, but the waters were so turbulent that he was swept away and the river took his life. They say that it was the “Spite of the Devil” that caused the messenger to pass away on his journey. 

The neighborhood began to develop during the later half of the 18th century along with the construction of the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad along the Harlem River. Although the larger development came after the Dutch settlers, the name comes from Spuyten Duyvil Creek, named for a Dutch settler Anthony Van Corlaer, who in 1642 died while attempting to swim across the creek. Later in the 17th century, Frederick Philipse, a Dutch immigrant built a toll bridge over the river in this location, furthering the Dutch influence in the area.  

Over 10,000 New Yorkers call this neighborhood home today and millions of riders on Metro-North’s Hudson Line pass through the station on their way to and from jobs in Manhattan and other parts of New York City. Thousands of cars also pass through the neighborhood and over the Harlem River on Route 9A and the Henry Hudson bridge enroute to and from Manhattan.

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Spuyten Duyvil

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Spuyten Duyvil 40.881164, -73.915407

 

Sources:

“History of the Name Spuyten Duyvil.” The New York Public Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

Haller, Vera. “Spuyten Duyvil, the Bronx, Defined by the Views.” The New York Times. N.p., 3 Sept. 2013. Web. 6 Apr. 2016.

NYC Gov Parks. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Apr. 2016.

Group Members: Andrew Hernandez, Trevor Matthews, Angela Feoli, Ryan Divins

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The Queens College Charter Window at Kirkpatrick Chapel

Megha Karnam and Victor Kim

Kirkpatrick_Chapel_1766_Rutgers_Charter_Window_New_Brunswick_NJ

ColonelHenry via Wikimedia Commons CC BY-SA 3.0

Physical Description of Artifact:

The Queens College Charter Window is an opalescent stained glass window located in the Kirkpatrick Hotel directly above the entrance of the Chapel. It depicts the signing of the charter that created Queen’s College in 1766 by Governor William Franklin. At the bottom of the window is a dedication of the window to Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen and his sons for their support and advocacy for the establishment of the college.

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Kirkpatrick Chapel

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Kirkpatrick Chapel 40.498861, -74.445830

 

The Queen’s College Charter Window is located in the Kirkpatrick Chapel in New Brunswick above the chapel’s narthex (the entrance of the church) and a choir loft. This location was probably chosen because the Kirkpatrick Chapel is the chapel to Rutgers University and the “Charter Window” commemorates ministers who were instrumental in the founding of Queen’s College, which is now Rutgers. Thus a Rutgers’ chapel is an appropriate location considering the history associated with this object. The window was donated in 1941 (175 years after the signing of the charter establishing Queen’s College). It was donated by the Frelinghuysen family and dedicated to Reverend Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen and his sons. Frelinghuysen was a Dutch-Reformed minister who proposed the idea to establish a college in New Jersey. His sons, Reverend Theodorus Frelinghuysen II and Reverend John Frelinghuysen, continued their father’s efforts, which led to the signing of the charter of Queen’s College in 1766.

We picked the Queen’s College Charter Window because it depicts the moment that was the start of our university. The signing of the charter was a result of growing tensions between the Dutch Reformed churches about whether an assembly should be formed to educate and ordain ministers for the pulpit. Professor Richard P. McCormick in his book, Rutgers, A Bicentennial History, states that the Queen’s College was “a child of controversy.” Its establishment was in the midst of the Great Awakening, which was a period of religious upheaval in the British colonies. Religious motives were dominant in the finding of this college, which is why the history behind the Charter Window is interesting. It shows how much the college has transformed from the day the charter has been signed to now. It speaks to people today because it shows how Rutgers University started from being a small college, deeply rooted in religion, to a large university comprised of a diverse group of people.

 

Bibliography

Di Ionno, M. (2012, August 08). Di Ionno: At historic Rutgers chapel, stained glass is still shining. Retrieved April 06, 2016, from http://blog.nj.com/njv_mark_diionno/2012/08/di_ionno_at_historic_rutgers_c.html
Frusciano, T. J. (n.d.). A Historical Sketch of Rutgers University: Section 1. Retrieved April 06, 2016, from https://www.libraries.rutgers.edu/rul/libs/scua/university_archives/ru_historical_sketch-p1.shtml

The Architecture of the Kirkpatrick Chapel

By, John, Sanan, Andrew

The Kirkpatrick Chapel was built in memory of Sophia Astley Kirkpatrick, wife of Littleton Kirkpatrick, trustee of Rutgers College. Henry Hardenburgh was the designer of the chapel, Grandson of the first President of Rutgers Jacob Hardenburgh. He went on to have a successful building career, and this was at the forefront of it. The Chapel was first designed to be used as both a library and for education and for worshipping purposes, until another Dutch building was built, Voorhees Hall, and the Chapel expanded it religious space in full. In 1916 around the 150th anniversary Henry Hardenburgh made expansions and renovations to further accommodate Rutgers student worship. He added a new chancel, two properly designed organ chambers, and a new stained glass window named, “Jesus, the teacher of ages” in memory of the first Rutgers President. The Chapel may be in America, but it is certainly Dutch, not just for the historical reasons but especially for its looks.

When we begin to look specifically at the architecture of the Kirkpatrick Chapel, we see the many similarities it has with Churches in The Netherlands. The Kirkpatrick Chapel features a design of tall and high center with two smaller triangles supporting it. This other Church, Grote of St Laurenskerk Rotterdam, was constructed in the Netherlands hundreds of years before the Kirkpatrick Chapel, but still features the same design. A high and tall center, with smaller triangles on the side supporting it. Both churches also include windows that are  elongated in an ovular fashion. The Grote of St Laurenskerk Rotterdam was the first stone Church constructed in the Netherlands. The Kirkpatrick Chapel was also constructed from the finest brownstone.

grote of st laurenskerk rotterdam
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grote of St Laurenskerk Rotterdam,

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grote of St Laurenskerk Rotterdam, 51.921435, 4.484906

As there are Dutch chapels with similar exteriors as that of the Kirkpatrick Chapel in New Jersey, there are also Dutch chapels with almost identical interiors as that of the Kirkpatrick Chapel as well. An example of such a chapel is the Dimnent Chapel located in Holland. Like many Dutch chapels and holy areas, there are large rows of seats for subscribed worshipers, although what significantly links the interiors of the Dimnent Chapel and the Kirkpatrick Chapel, are the large stained glass windows and the tent-like architectural design of both chapels. In terms of the windows, both chapels sport numerous stain glass windows – one large window in the front, and numerous smaller ones on the sides, all with significant religious or important figures designed into them. The general interior shape of both chapels are similar as well, as both chapels are substantially smaller in size than most Dutch chapels, with inclined ceilings and beams. Even the ceiling framing and support are visually linked, as in both chapels, they are wooden, and tread the direction of the ceiling to the side walls. Although there are many similarities between the interior designs of the Dimnent Chapel and the Kirkpatrick Chapel, it is evidently apparent that the Kirkpatrick Chapel contains large white beams used to support the weight of the ceiling and the secondary wall linings while the Dimnent Chapel, does not.

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dimnent chapel

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dimnent chapel 48.216038, 16.378984

Works Cited

http://www.kirkpatrickchapel.rutgers.edu/about/history

 

Castello Plan

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Castello Plan

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Castello Plan 43.819447, 11.228183

By: Lauren Weissman, Alec Meacham, Nareena Imam, Huiwen Guan

1660 Map of New Amsterdam (New York City):

 

Interactive Map

What is It?

Our artifact is a 1660 map called The Castello Plan. While the original is lost, it was last seen in 1916 in Villa di Castello when it was redrawn. The map shows Manhattan in the 17th century, a time when Wall Street was literally a wall built to section off the Dutch from the natives. While there are several street names that sound familiar to us today, such as Broadway, Wall Street, and Pearl Street, there are also a series of canals that are unfamiliar to us today. Reminiscent of life back in the Netherlands, the Dutch built these canals for easy transportation of goods in and out of the city. And even though the original map is lost, there is a popular 20th century copy currently on display in the New York Public Library.

1660 vs Today:

Essay:

Our artifact is the Castello Plan, a 1660 redraft of an original Dutch map of New Amsterdam. It is one of the earliest known maps of Manhattan created by Jacques Cortelyou (ca. 1625 – 1693), a surveyor in the New Amsterdam. While the original survey has since been lost, a copy was created in 1665 by an anonymous individual. Presently, it is located in Italy, in a collection of Dutch maps that belonged to Cosimo de’ Medici III, who acquired it during a trip to Holland in 1669 from the cartographer Johannes Blaeu, who put it into an atlas.

Created only four years before the city would be renamed New York, the Castello Plan represents the progress towards colonization which the Dutch made between the years 1609, when Henry Hudson first discovered the region, and 1660. The infrastructure of the rising city is shown as seen in the layout of the streets but also included are elements of Dutch design and architecture as seen in the buildings and the inclusion of numerous gardens within the city walls, showing evidence of Dutch traces in horticulture in New York.

We chose to feature this artifact because of our connection with New York City, due to its proximity to New Jersey. It is a city we have been exposed to for years, and may have even walked past or seen things outlined in the Castello Plan. Previously, we did not consider the impact the Dutch had on New York because of the amount of time that has elapsed since they were here. However, this artifact shows us that we should be more aware of the Dutch presence, because it is deeply embedded in the history of the city.

As one of the earliest known maps of New York City, the Castello Plan is a symbol of how entwined the histories of America and the Dutch are. There is evidence that places relevant to residents even now have Dutch influences, such as buildings that still line the streets drawn carefully in the map. Documents along with the Castello Plan record the owners of buildings and what they did, showing that even back then New Amsterdam already had the diverse culture characteristic of modern day New York City.

Works Cited:

http://www.nyc99.org/1600/castillo.html

http://digitalcommons.buffalostate.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1080&context=neha

http://www.nyc.gov/html/lpc/downloads/pdf/reports/STONE_STREET_HISTORIC_DISTRICT.pdf

http://www.wired.com/2013/10/new-york-city-maps/

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Wall Street- Roland Lucas, Cecilia Salazar, and Nicholas Botte Section 9

For our Dutch artifact we chose Wall Street. It is located in Manhattan, New York and we picked this because of its historical significance as a part of New York City (formerly New Amsterdam) and its relevance in our society as a dominating topic in political, economic, and social discourse. Wall Street, as it has grown into the financial and business center of the global economy, has taken on an identity that many Americans associate with wealth and power. However, many people today view Wall Street in a negative light because of the involvement of the banks and financial organizations in the recent financial meltdown along with the nefarious and speculative practices that have occurred.

Wall Street dates back to the Dutch colonial times in Manhattan. The name of this renowned street actually comes from the wall of the Dutch settlement because “in the 17th century the wall formed the northern boundary of the New Amsterdam settlement erected for defensive purposes,” (http://www.loc.gov/rr/business/wallstreet/wallstreet.html). Protection was important to the settlers as a potential war was threatening to erupt between the English and the Dutch. The wall was built around the year 1685 by the Dutch settlers, led by Peter Stuyvesant and the Dutch West India Company. Wall Street tells the story of the earliest Dutch settlers in Manhattan, and how they were innovative in the actual construction of the wall. Interestingly, Wall Street also created a natural split of socioeconomic classes as well. Local merchants of New Amsterdam became split into two groups: auctioneers and dealers. Also, Wall Street was a popular place where slave owners were able to rent out their slaves by the day, week, or month. Overall, the early economic innovation of Wall Street created by the Dutch shows how Wall Street, has been a major center for economic activity for many centuries. Now, Wall Street is the busiest financial area in the entire world. This relates to the history of how the Dutch settlers made this area extremely busy and lively back in the 1600s. While Wall Street is not directly connected to Rutgers, it has become an incredibly popular area for college graduates to seek employment and Rutgers sends many graduates and alumni to this historic financial center.

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Wall Street

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Wall Street 40.900020, -74.358215

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Bibliography

http://www.loc.gov/rr/business/wallstreet/wallstreet.html

http://www.newnetherlandinstitute.org/history-and-heritage/digital-exhibitions/a-tour-of-new-netherland/manhattan/wall-street/

http://www.wsj.com/articles/trading-the-suburbs-for-high-rise-living-in-amsterdam-1452704582

http://www.aviewoncities.com/nyc/wallstreet.htm

http://www.wsj.com/articles/a-long-weekend-getaway-to-amsterdam-1433530832

 

Streets of New York: Wall Street

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Wall Street

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Wall Street 40.706001, -74.008801

By Sarah Kim, Amy Mei, Yulin Ren (Section 08)

Everyone has heard of the famous streets of New York such as Wall Street, Broadway, Maiden Lane, Love Lane, and many more popular streets. However, not everyone knows where these street names originated from. Most of the street names of New York, and even the borough names such as Manhattan were actually named after Dutch influences! With New York being such a popular tourist spot, it is interesting to learn of the Dutch impacts on such big cities and streets.

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Our chosen Dutch “artifact” can be found throughout the streets of New York City, scattered in various corners, dominating the identity of the avenues and streets of this urban city; street names and street signs around the Big Apple bear many Dutch influences.  Perhaps the most famous Dutch influenced street name is the world-renowned, Wall Street.  The original Dutch name was “de Waal Straat” which was directly translated to “Wall Street.”   In the 17th century, the wall created the northern boundary of the New Amsterdam settlement that was established with defensive intentions.  The name directly refers to a wall that was build by Dutch settlers on the southern tip of Manhattan Island; there was a war between the English and Dutch, which potentially could have expanded into the island’s American colonies.  The wall was never actually used for defense, but its legacy still holds strong, as Wall Street is now a figurative bastion of the world’s financial market and economy.  Wall Street is a 1.1 kilometer stretch of sidewalk that extends across eight blocks from Broadway to South Street, making it a monumental landmark in the heart of the city.

We chose to research Wall Street, because we’re all pursuing business for our bachelor’s degree at Rutgers University.  New York is such a popular and beautiful city which attracts millions of tourists and it was very interesting to learn how much the Dutch influenced this city.  But most importantly, we’re most invested in NYC, because many of us dream of working in the city one day, specifically on Wall Street, to fully immerse ourselves in the heart of business.  Wall Street is still an emblem of power, status, and authority in modern day society, so people still treat it with the same respect it was founded on.

 

Works Cited

“Dutch Art.” Google Books. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“History of Wall Street.” (Business Reference Services, Library of Congress). Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“NYC Street Names and Their Stories.” Nycgo.com. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“Wall Street & Stock Market History.” History of Wall Street and the Stock Markets. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“Where Does the Name “Wall Street” Come From? | Investopedia.” Investopedia. 2004. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

Our blog : http://sister-republics.blogs.rutgers.edu/2016/04/streets-of-new-york/

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