First Reformed Church of New Brunswick

First Reformed Church

Authors: Ariel Gulchin, Ifrah Tariq, Rahma Tayyab, Pooja Shah

Artifact Image: First Reformed Church, New Brunswick, NJ  


9 Bayard St, New Brunswick, NJ, United States

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9 Bayard St, New Brunswick, NJ, United States 40.495057, -74.442349

First organized in 1717, the First Reformed Church is a stone building very characteristic of the square architecture of those times. Potentially 400 people could be seated at the church pews. According to the church website, a rather long pew on the south side of the church was once used by city officials. In the middle of the aisle, there would be a rope which, when pulled, would ring the pell and call church-goers to the service. There are also two pillars which would support the roof from the center of the structure.

The First Reformed Church is located on 9 Bayard Street in New Brunswick, New Jersey. When Dutch settlers first arrived here, they began to flock to the rich soil by the Raritan and Millstone Rivers and formed farming communities. These deeply Protestant communities began to hold services in their home until the community grew too large to continue in this way; thus the First Reformed Church was established in 1717, and named the “Reformed Dutch Church” of New Brunswick. It was not only built by the Dutch community in New Brunswick, but was also under the ordination of the Reformed Church in America – a Protestant Christian institution that was founded in New York City by Dutch Settlers. This shows the communications between these Dutch settlers towards order, right from the very beginning of their settling here. They seemed to expect to stay for a very long time.The meticulous nature of the Dutch also transferred to their churches, which were particularly known to keep detailed records of their church ceremonies. William Nelson, a presbyterian minister, spoke of dutch churches in the following manner:

“The early Dutch churches as a rule were scrupulously careful to keep and preserve in the church archives registers of baptisms and marriages. The churches of other denominations not only were not so particular, but when records were made they were often regarded as the private property of the pastors, and were carried away by them on their removal to other charges.”

Unfortunately, the Church was caught in the crossfires during the Revolutionary War and was severely damaged as the Dutch settlers that still lived there attempted to hide parts of the church such as the church bell and hid it on the hill by “Old Queens”. After being reformed, to this day the church still acts as a church to many people, providing religious refuge for those who need it.

The Church also has ties to Rutgers University, with three former Queens College Presidents buried at the Church including: Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh, first President of Queens College; Ira Condict, third President of Queens College; and Theodore Frelinghuysen, US Senator and seventh President of Queens College.

We picked this church as our artifact because it shows how the passage of time has not disrupted some core sentiments Dutch settlers had when they came to America, just like it hasn’t disrupted this building. It also shows how there are still similarities between us and the Dutch to this day, and this church is just an example of one religion that we have in common and practice in both places. Regardless of the fact that it is a church, it is also reminiscent that the Dutch claimed parts of this land as their own, and their effects can still be seen today in the forms of buildings, people, and culture.


NELSON, W.. (1904). CHURCH RECORDS IN NEW JERSEY. Journal of the Presbyterian Historical Society (1901-1930), 2(4), 173–188. Retrieved from

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Kusakabe Taro

Section 1

Andreas Kauderer, Kristine Claire Dela Cruz, Matthew Habel, Nicholas Petriello, Arjun Sreeram

The Dutch scope of influence was immense and spanned across the entire globe. Whether for religious reason or trade, it was in the best interest of the Dutch to maintain these connections. One such example is the relationship between the Dutch and the Japanese, with the presence of Japanese students at Rutgers emphasizing this connection through a scholarly notion that still exists in Rutgers today…the international student.

Willow Grove Cemetery

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Willow Grove Cemetery 40.490826, -74.444062

Our objects is located in the Willow Grove Cemetery in New Brunswick, behind the public library.  In memory of Kusakabe Taro, one of the first Japanese students to attend Rutgers, the university bought the plot in Willow Grove to commemorate Taro’s legacy.  His obelisk was placed there after Taro’s death from tuberculosis on April 12, 1870 at twenty-five.  Subsequent obelisks and tombstones were installed on the same plot up until 1886.  Rutgers originally bought the plot.  In 1977, Dr. Yuko Ohtake made a donation of $2000 to restore the graves from deterioration. Additional donations were given by other citizens from Taro’s hometown of Fukui, Japan, a sister city of New Brunswick.

The gravesite is a small, square plot of land in Willow Grove Cemetery surrounded by railings on all four sides with its own mini entrance at the front. One headstone sits outside of the enclosure, which contains the names of the seven deceased Japanese students including Kusakabe Taro. At the other of the square plot stand five white pillars engraved with Japanese characters. In the middle, there is another tall pillar, a short square headstone, and a rounded headstone, which was for a deceased infant named Saburo Takagi.

This artifact tells a story from the global network of Dutch trade and settling, through which Kusakabe Taro was encouraged by the Dutch Church to travel to the United States in order to study at Rutgers. Kusakabe’s unfortunate death actually strengthened the connection between Rutgers and Fukui, as it was a motive to purchase a plot of land dedicated for his burial. Since this time, the gravesite has been the burial site for eight Japanese citizens who died in the area, and a yearly ceremony is held to remember these academic adventurers. We chose this monument both because of the powerful story it tells, and its role in present day Rutgers where it is actively commemorated.

WM Elliot Griffis described Kusakabe as a “‘passionate pilgrim’”, whose passion and hard work we can credit today with helping to start a great relationship with Japan. Nowadays the effects of the first steps of Kusakabe and others in America has led to other Universities diversifying, and a sister cities tie between New Brunswick and Fukui. However, for Rutgers personally, it has led to great relations with Universities in Japan, specifically in Fukui, of which former Rutgers president McCormick once said, “Rutgers cherishes its place in the special Sister City relationship between Fukui and New Brunswick … Fukui will always be a part of the history of Rutgers University. I hope that Rutgers will always be celebrated by the people of Fukui as well.”


“Hidden New Jersey.” : The Japanese at Willow Grove Cemetery: Revealing New Jersey’s Role in Modernizing a Nation. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“Japanese Student.” Google Books. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“Rutgers Commemorates First Encounter between New Brunswick and Fukui, Japan.” Rutgers Commemorates First Encounter between New Brunswick and Fukui, Japan. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.

“Willow Grove Cemetery : History.” Willow Grove Cemetery : History. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Apr. 2016.


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Henry Hudson Statue in the Bronx

Kevin Reshamwala, Nick Ramirez, Fatimah Ahmed, and Misha Faerovitch

Section 8

henry hudson statuehenry hudson map


new amsterdam

Physical Description:

The bronze statue of Henry Hudson stands at a height of 16 feet. The explorer is perched on top of a Milford pink granite column that is 100 feet while the monument itself is elevated at 200 feet. His stature gives the illusion that he is trying to balance himself on the ship’s deck. There is a cornerstone at the base of the monument that is made out of rock, stone, and metal. It depicts various scenes from the voyage to New York such as meeting with the Natives and making a deal with Dutch settlers.


The Henry Hudson Statue is located on Spuyten Duyvil Hill in the Bronx borough of New York City (specifically Independence Avenue Bronx, NY 10463). In 1906, civic leaders wanted to create a statue as a homage to Hudson in commemoration of the 300th Anniversary of his arrival in New York Harbor. His ship, the Half Moon, was docked off the Spuyten Duyvil in preparation for a voyage to discover the Northwest Passage. Instead, he discovered the Hudson Bay.

Plans for the monument came into fruition in 1909 and construction was completed in 1937. In 1938, the statue was unveiled to the public. Architect Walter Cook created the column while sculptor Karl Bitter designed the statue. Unfortunately, Bitter passed away in 1915, prompting Bitter’s student Karl Heinrick Gruppe to finish the statue on his behalf.

In terms of Dutch history, the memorial represents the first voyage set forth by the Dutch. The captain, Henry Hudson, helped establish the first trading post on the Island of Manhattan. The memorial also commemorates Hudson’s charter with the Dutch East India Company, which was designed to find a path to Northern Asia.

We decided to analyze the statue of Henry Hudson because we believe the impact of his voyage is still felt today. If it wasn’t for Hudson, the Dutch culture and value system would not have spread across the region. New York City would not probably not have become the diverse metropolitan area that it is today without the Dutch beliefs about ethnic and religious tolerance. The statue of Henry Hudson reminds us of the Age of Exploration. It is a monument commemorating a frontiersmen who ventured outside the boundaries of his understanding and into the unknown.

                                                    Works Cited

Da Cruz, Frank. “Henry Hudson Memorial Column – Bronx NY – Living       New Deal.” Living New  Deal. Living New Deal, 02 Aug. 2015. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“English Title: View of New York by Johannes Vingboons.” The Atlantic World: America and the Netherlands. Global Gateway, 2016. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“Explorer-Age of Discovery.” Henry Hudson. The Mariners’ Museum, 2016. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“Henry Hudson Memorial Column, Bronx, New York City.” Flickr. Yahoo!, 2016. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“Henry Hudson Park-Henry Hudson Monument.” NYC Parks. New York City Department of Parks and Recreations. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“Monument Detail.” Fieldguide to U.S. Public Monuments and Memorials. Fieldguide to U.S. Public Monuments and Memorials, 2005. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

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netherlands capitalism
Capitalism begins in the Netherlands
capitalism map
Spread of capitalism around the world (Economic freedom in the U.S. and the Netherlands)







John Korn, Jacob Rothberg, Rahmate Islam  (Section 6)

Capitalism is an economic and political system based on private ownership of and investment in capital and production of goods and services for profit. Merchant capitalism, which was prominent in the Netherlands from the 1300s to the 1800s, is the system of trade, finance, shipping and commercialization for profit. This is also referred to as the first modern economy.

Reformation in the Netherlands during the 17th century influenced capitalism. Calvinism countered the denouncement of money-lending by the Catholic Church and instead portrayed wealth as a virtue. It encouraged investment of money by justifying it with the Protestant work ethic, one should work hard and gain wealth now in order to have a better chance in being salvaged later. Speculation plays a big part in capitalism as well, which we see an example of with the Dutch tulip mania (1633-37).

While capitalism does not have the blatant and evident relations to Dutch heritage in America, there are many underlying connections that can be made.  For example, as we spoke about in one of the lectures that we attended, the Dutch economy was very unique.  They needed to make specific adaptations if they wanted to have a functioning and flourishing economy, due to their geographical location.  Through agricultural advancements and techniques, the Dutch were able to successfully maintain a healthy economy even while faced with the challenges that their location presented. In a similar sense, the American economy must constantly adapt to changes in technology, trends, and the surrounding world.

Capitalism speaks to us all here as it dominates the U.S. and encourages advances for economic growth. We have the Business School at Rutgers which concentrates on the capitalistic system we have. Founded in 1929, it teaches students how to work in the capitalistic economy.


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Netherlands 52.132633, 5.291266
Rutgers Business School

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Rutgers Business School 40.523317, -74.440951

Works Cited


Taeusch, C. F.. “What Is “capitalism”?”. International Journal of Ethics 45.2 (1935): 221–234. Web.

“The Dutch Economy in the Golden Age (16th – 17th Centuries).” EHnet. N.p., n.d. Web. 12 Apr. 2016. <>.

Wallerstein, Immanuel. “Merchant, Dutch, or Historical Capitalism?”. Review (Fernand Braudel Center)20.2 (1997): 243–254. Web


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The Blawenburg Dutch Reformed Church

Image Credit:

The Blawenburg Reformed church is located in Montgomery Township, NJ at 452 County Road 518. The church was built in this location to accommodate the growing population of Dutch Reformed Church members in the Blawenburg area in the early nineteenth century. The Church was built in 1830 and the Dutch Reformed Church helped but the building into existence. The Blawenburg Reformed Church tells the story of the strong influence of the Dutch in central New Jersey in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Dutch population in this rural farm town was clearly large, as another Dutch Reformed Church existed in neighboring Harlingen only four miles away. Although this artifact is not related to Rutgers directly, our university did originally function as a seminary for this denomination, making it a possibility that some of the Blawenburg Reformed preachers received their instruction at Rutgers. This church actually has a personal connection to one of our group members, as her parents were married in the building, and this is just another example of the far-stretching influence of the Dutch in everyday American life. This church still has an active congregation currently, and its historical value is appreciated by the congregants. Church member, Grace Terhune, said that the church is, “essential to understanding Blawenburg and its history”, and that it formed “the center of the town” along with the schoolhouse. Indeed, this landmark, still in use, is rich in historical significance and important in revealing the story of the Dutch in America.
The Blawenburg Dutch Reformed Church has the design of a classic American chapel: a large, wooden building with a gabled roof and a gorgeous steeple. The structure that stands today is not quite the one raised in three days back in 1830 – several additions have been added since its original construction. In 1860 the pulpit was moved 20 feet to allow more room for the growing congregation. In the same decade, a bell was donated and a pipe organ was added. In the 1890s the church was electrified and the ceiling was renovated. An education wing was added in the 1950s. Despite all of these renovations, sitting in one of the wooden pews of the church one still gets the sense that they are a part of history: the congregation has done a wonderful job preserving the original architecture, and every square inch of the building has a bit of history behind it.

Blawenburg Reformed Church

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Blawenburg Reformed Church 40.408382, -74.699293

David Kornmehl, Kyle Silver, Erin Kelly -Section 04


“Interview 2.” Interview by James Misek. Blawenburg Reformed Church. N.p., n.d. Web.

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William the Silent

By: Sabrina Sun, Ashley Thach, Joseph Yu Section 8

The William the Silent statue is approximately 15 feet in height and is installed on a square stone base that is 6 feet in height and weighs abut 2,000 pounds. William is positioned with his right hand raised to his chest and pointing with his index finger. He holds an open scroll in his left hand. A small dog also sits at his feet on his right. He wears the clothes of a civilian magistrate of the 16th century and has a mustache and a beard.

William the Silent

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William the Silent 40.499858, -74.446793

William the Silent is located in the Voorhees mall section of Rutgers University’s College Avenue Campus in New Brunswick, New Jersey. It is located along Seminary Place, where there are several academic buildings. The statue was donated to Rutgers by Dr. Fenton B. Turck to commemorate the university’s Dutch heritage. It was collaborated with Rutgers alumnus Leonor F. Loree. The statue is William I, Prince of Orange who is the early leader of the Dutch revolt against Habsburg Spain which led to the independence of the Netherlands in 1648. For this reason, William is known as the “Father of the Fatherland”.

Our group chose this artifact because we often see it when going to classes in Scott Hall. We were interested in the history behind this statue and wanted to understand its significance in the history of Rutgers. Today, the statue is included in student life in students and community events such as graduation ceremonies, pep rallies, Dutch-American festivals and protests. Initially, students wanted to make the school color orange, in reference to the Price of Orange from Rutgers’ Dutch heritage. However, the Rutgers student publication (later named the Daily Targum), proposed the color scarlet to be the official school color. Many Rutgers students call the statue “Willie the Silent” and “Still Bill”. According the tradition, the statue is expected to whistle when a female virgin walks by.

Occasionally, the statue is a target of vandalism from the ongoing rivalry between Rutgers and Princeton University, since the first intercollegiate football game. Princeton students have frequently doused the statue with orange paint as well as other forms of vandalization.

Works Cited:

“Paths to Historic Rutgers: A Self-Guided Tour.” Rutgers University Libraries. Web. 06 Apr. 2016. <>

“The Silent Treatment.” Rutgers Magazine. Web. 06 Apr. 2016. <>

“William III (of Orange).” BBC – History. BBC. Web. 06 Apr. 2016. <>

“William of Orange or King William II/III.” Undiscovered Scotland. Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

“William the Silent of Holland.” Corvallis Today. Web. 6 Apr. 2016.

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Dutch Influence in Girl in White with Cherries by Micah William

DcoetzeeBot via Wikimedia CC BY-SA 3.0
DcoetzeeBot via Wikimedia CC BY-SA 3.0

Post by: Megan Johnston, Amy Barenboim, and Sabrina Piraneque Section 4

Physical Description: The painting Girl in White with Cherries by Micah Williams is a still-life portrait of a young girl. The girl is dressed in white, white many frills, has rosy cheeks and is carrying a basket of cherries. She is placing some cherries on plate, which is laid on the surface of a wooden chair. The girl appears to have a small smile, and is staring directly at the viewer of the painting.


The Zimmerli Arts Museum

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The Zimmerli Arts Museum 40.499916, -74.445943

           Girl in White with Cherries, an oil on canvas painting, is currently located in the Zimmerli Arts Museum on the Rutgers University New Brunswick campus. The painting can be found in the American Art Wing gallery of the museum. Furthermore, it is located in the Zimmerli due to the fact it was a gift by Anna I. Morgan. The painting was done by Micah Williams, an American artist who worked in the Raritan Valley region, in 1831, a few years before his death in 1837. Williams spent most of his life in New Brunswick traveling from house to house drawing portraits of the middle-class and elite. His latter years, 1829 to 1833, he spent in New York City continuing his passion for painting.

         Lots of Dutch influence can be found when examining Girl in White with Cherries. Dutch portraiture is characterized by a showcase of wealth, while the subject is performing an act usually in a domestic situation. For example, a self-portrait of Rembrandt depicts him reading. The Rembrandt print of Cornelis Anslo that we viewed in the Zimmerli depicted him in the midst of speaking, surrounded by books in his home to signify erudition, and in opulent dress with a gold chain. The performance of a task in conjunction with wealth works to emphasize that despite their wealth, inherently the Dutch were humble. Girl in White with Cherries contains all the attributes of Dutch portraiture. The subject’s clothes are obviously of wealth, with beautiful and intricate lace, and she is holding cherries by what looks to be a chair in her home. The white of her dress also portrays her innocence and youth, something the parents of the subject would most likely want to be acknowledged having her portrait made at a young age. The rosy cheeks of the girl can also signify this youth. Rembrandt and other Dutch artists also focused on portraying personality through facial expressions. The girl has a small smile, almost mischievous, which highlights her youth as well. Dutch portraiture revolved around highlighting the positive and desirable aspects of the subject, something Micah Williams surely did in this portrait.

Wheelock, Arthur K., Jr. “Dutch Paintings of the Seventeenth Century.”National Gallery of Art. National Gallery of Art, n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2016

Gorce, Tammy La. “Mysteries of an Unusual Traveling Salesman.” The New York Times. The New York Times, 27 July 2013. Web. 09 Apr. 2016.

“Dutch Realist Genre Painting.” Dutch Realist School of Genre Painting. Encyclopedia of Art, n.d. Web. 09 Apr. 2016.

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Anne Frank from Amsterdam to Manhattan

By Jennifer Valentovic, Libby Wu, and Jay Hung

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source :

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Space where Frank hid and wrote her diary.


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source :

Anne Frank Center

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Anne Frank Center 40.713110, -74.009783
Anne Frank House

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Anne Frank House 52.375310, 4.884091


Our artifact is Anne Frank because of her relationship between The Netherlands and America. Her legacy has traveled from her hiding space in Amsterdam to the Anne Frank center in Manhattan.  Otto Frank, her father, started the Anne Frank foundation in 1959, which created the center in 1977. Using “innovative education programs and exhibitions, the Center uses Anne Frank as a role model for today. Her insights and courage continue to inspire students, educators and citizens more than 60 years after her diary was first published,” (About the Anne Frank Center).  Furthermore, her legacy lives on beyond Manhattan because of her diary “The Diary of a Young Girl” that is now read throughout America and the world.

Frank and her family emigrated to Amsterdam in 1933 from Frankfurt, Germany after the Nazis gained control of Germany ( She enjoyed her time here in Amsterdam attending school, dating Dutch boys, and making friends, but once Germany invaded the Netherlands in 1940 this soon changed. She hid with her family in the secret annex, where she wrote in her diary about her daily life until she was eventually found by the Nazis and killed at Bergen Belsen concentration camp ( Frank is just one of the millions of Jews who were killed during the Holocaust, and her story represents the people who looked to Amsterdam for refuge during this tragic time.


The “Secret Annex” in which Anne Frank hid during the years before she was sent to Bergen-Belsen during the Nazi regime was located above and behind the office of Otto Frank at Prinsengracht 263 in Amsterdam. The space behind the office was the perfect place to hide, especially after a movable bookcase was built in front of the entryway to the space in August of 1942. The Frank family, along with four other Jewish people, started hiding in the annex in July of 1942 and four of Otto’s loyal employees agreed to help them hide and provide them with the supplies that they needed in order to survive.  A diary that Anne Frank kept during her time in hiding details her life and he struggles she faced. It has now become an inspiration to many people in America because for most, her diary is the first exposure that they have to the unfairness of her situation and that of the many Jewish people and other people that were considered “undesirable”.

We decided to choose this artifact because of how relevant it is to our modern lives and to the culture in America today. Anne Frank is now well known in the entire world, let alone America, and is one of the more recognizable historical figures. There are many monuments and ways to remember her story today, such as the Anne Frank Center located in New York City that is directly associated with the “Anne Frank House” where she hid. Her diary is often used as teaching material in many of our schools, and is used to “educate young people and communities and communities in North America about the dangers of intolerance, antisemitism, racism and discrimination, and to inspire the next generation to build a world based on equal rights and mutual respect.” (Anne Frank Center)

Bibliography/Works Cited

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Dutch Cheese in America

Shelleylyn via Flickr CC BY-SA 2.0
Shelleylyn via Flickr CC BY-SA 2.0

Gouda is a Dutch cheese that is one of the most popular cheeses in the world. It is a semi-hard cheese that is known for its smooth, creamy, and rich flavor. It has a pungent aroma and is most often yellow with a waxed rind. Gouda is categorized into seven types, separated by how long it has been aged. In the United States, a smoother and less flavorful Gouda is preferred, while the Dutch favor fuller flavors. Younger Goudas are often paired with beers, while aged Goudas go well with wine.

The object’s origin is the Netherlands, and it was named after the city of Gouda in the Netherlands. It is located in food stores all across the world, representing up to fifty to sixty percent of global cheese consumption. The creation of this particular type of cheese dates back to 1184, so it is possible that those who originally came to America brought the cheese, or the method of making the cheese, with them. The Dutch people are the primary creators of Gouda, which is traditionally made from the milk of cows, but can be made with the milk of goats or sheep (such practice is especially popular among Dutch artisans in the Netherlands). The potential way in which Gouda cheese arrived in America shows how the Dutch people brought many foods, inventions, and ideas with them when they settled in the American Northeast, all of which influence what is currently manufactured and practiced.


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Gouda 52.011520, 4.710463 The city of Gouda in the Netherlands.


We picked Gouda cheese as our Dutch artifact because today it is a very popular cheese in America and worldwide. Gouda cheese, though somewhat ubiquitous in food culture of many countries, demonstrates that as a nation, we participate in the global influence that the Dutch have, and relish in consuming and utilizing the goods and ideas that this influence has produced.

Due to this popularity, people today have developed several varieties of the cheese, such as Graskaas, a cheese eaten within weeks, and Overjarig, a cheese aged to change its flavor and texture. Today in America, a commercial form of Gouda that is smoother and less flavorful than traditional Dutch Gouda is what is most popular. According to Sylvie Tremblay on, a popular health and fitness blog, “Each serving of Gouda — 1.5 ounces — contains 151 calories, or approximately 8 percent of the daily calorie intake in a standard 2,000-calorie diet…Gouda also contains a moderate amount of protein — 10.6 grams, which is 23 percent of the daily protein needs for women and 19 percent for men.”

By: Raymond Cabrera, Nicolo Florendo, Anthony Miranda, Samuel Wu


“Gouda –” Gouda – Web. 06 Apr. 2016.

Admin. “FACT OF THE WEEK – GOUDA CHEESE.” Top Food Facts. 15 Feb. 2015. Web.

Tremblay, Sylvie. “Is Gouda Cheese Healthy?” 03 Jun. 2015. Web. 09 Apr. 2016.

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